(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, 2011
In image compression, the Wavelet transforms produces muchless blocking artifacts than the DCT. They are adopted inJPEG2000. They also perform well in image de-noising.However, 2D wavelet transform is, intrinsically, a tensor- product implementation of the 1D wavelet transform, and it provides local frequency representation of image regions over a range of spatial scales, and it does not represent 2Dsingularities effectively. Therefore it does not work well inretaining the directional edges in the image, and it is notsufficient in representing the contours not horizontally or vertically.
The Contourlet transform (CTT) is a true 2-D geometricalimage based transform, which is recently introduced by M.N.Do and M. Vetterli . It overcomes the difficulty inexploring the geometry in digital images due to the discretenature of the image data. It possesses the important propertiesof directionality and anisotropy which wavelet do not possesses.. It can represent a smooth contour with fewer coefficients compared with wavelets ( figure 2.2.1).The CTT is based on a double filter bank structure bycombining the Laplacian Pyramid (LP) with a directional filter bank (DFB). The Laplacian pyramid (LP) is used todecompose an image into a number of radial subabnds and thedirectional filter bank ( DFB) decompose each LP detailssubband into a number of directional subbands. The requirednumber of directions can be specified by the user.Multiresolution flexibility, local and directional imageexpansion in the contourlet image representation, allows for easy sub-band processing. In all, Contourlet has the propertiesMultiresolution ,i.e, representing images from a coarse level tofine-resolution level, Localization , i.e., basis elements can belocalized in both the spatial and the frequency domains,Critical sampling ,i.e., representation form a basis, or a framewith small redundancy, Directionality, i.e., representation of basis elements oriented at variety of directions andAnisotropy, i.e., capturing of smooth contours in images. Thefirst three properties are also provided by separable wavelets.The analysis part of this type of filter is shown figure 2.2.2.
Figure 2.2.1: Wavelet versus Contoulet: illustratingthe successive refinement by the two systems near a smooth contour,which is shown as a thick curve separating two smooth regions
We can extract important coefficients and edge directionalinformation by contourlet transform, as shown in the figure2.2.3. The figure 2.2.4 is the level 2 decompositon of image‘aeroplane.tif’.Figure 2.2.3: low sub-band and directional sub-bandsOf level 2 decompositon of image ‘zoneplate.png’
Figure 2.2.2: Respective frequency plane decompositon
Contourlet transform has the advantages of high capacity thanthe wavelet and wavelet-like transform ( that have 3 highfrequency subbands whereas we obtain 4 subbands incontourlet.
The proposed steganographic technique embeds secretdata obtained after encoding by T-codes into the
4subbands for horizontal and vertical directions