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Performance Appraise of Assorted Thresholding Methods in CBIR using Block Truncation Coding

Performance Appraise of Assorted Thresholding Methods in CBIR using Block Truncation Coding

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Published by ijcsis
The paper proposes various types of thresholding methods for generation of image bitmaps used in Block Truncation Coding (BTC), also the performance comparison of these assorted thresholding methods in image retrieval using multilevel BTC is presented. The different thresholding methods discussed here alias Global thresholding, Local thresholding and Intermediate thresholding. Based on the type of thresholding method used for bitmap generation in BTC the performance of the respective BTC based image retrieval method varies. The proposed variations of BTC based image retrieval techniques are tested on extended Wang generic image database of 1000 images spread across 11 categories. For each CBIR (content based image retrieval) technique, 1000 queries are fired on image database to compute average precision and recall for all queries with respect to number of retrieved image. These values are plotted to obtain the crossover point of precision and recall, which is used as criteria for performance comparison. The results have shown the performance improvement (i.e., higher precision and recall crossover point values) with Intermediate BTC-CBIR method. The performance of multileveled Intermediate BTC-CBIR increases gradually with increase in level up to certain extent (Level 3) and then increases slightly due to voids being created at higher levels. In all level 3 of BTC Intermediate-9 BTC gives best performance.
The paper proposes various types of thresholding methods for generation of image bitmaps used in Block Truncation Coding (BTC), also the performance comparison of these assorted thresholding methods in image retrieval using multilevel BTC is presented. The different thresholding methods discussed here alias Global thresholding, Local thresholding and Intermediate thresholding. Based on the type of thresholding method used for bitmap generation in BTC the performance of the respective BTC based image retrieval method varies. The proposed variations of BTC based image retrieval techniques are tested on extended Wang generic image database of 1000 images spread across 11 categories. For each CBIR (content based image retrieval) technique, 1000 queries are fired on image database to compute average precision and recall for all queries with respect to number of retrieved image. These values are plotted to obtain the crossover point of precision and recall, which is used as criteria for performance comparison. The results have shown the performance improvement (i.e., higher precision and recall crossover point values) with Intermediate BTC-CBIR method. The performance of multileveled Intermediate BTC-CBIR increases gradually with increase in level up to certain extent (Level 3) and then increases slightly due to voids being created at higher levels. In all level 3 of BTC Intermediate-9 BTC gives best performance.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 09, No.06, June 2011
Performance Appraise of Assorted ThresholdingMethods in CBIR using Block Truncation Coding
Dr. H.B.Kekre
1
, Sudeep D. Thepade
2
, Shrikant Sanas
3
 
1
Senior Professor,
2
Associate Professor & Ph.D.Research Scholar,
3
M.Tech Student
 
Computer Engineering Department, MPSTME,
SVKM‟s
NMIMS (Deemed-to-be University), Mumbai, India
1
hbkekre@yahoo.com,
2
sudeepthepade@gmail.com,
3
shri.sanas@gmail.com
 Abstract
 — 
 
The paper proposes various types of thresholdingmethods for generation of image bitmaps used in BlockTruncation Coding (BTC), also the performance comparisonof these assorted thresholding methods in image retrievalusing multilevel BTC is presented. The different hresholdingmethods discussed here alias Global thresholding, Localthresholding and Intermediate thresholding. Based on thetype of thresholding method used for bitmap generation inBTC the performance of the respective BTC based imageretrieval method varies. The proposed variations of BTCbased image retrieval techniques are tested on extendedWang generic image database of 1000 images spread across11 categories. For each CBIR (content based image retrieval)technique, 1000 queries are fired on image database tocompute average precision and recall for all queries withrespect to number of retrieved image. These values areplotted to obtain the crossover point of precision and recall,which is used as criteria for performance comparison. Theresults have shown the performance improvement (i.e.,higher precision and recall crossover point values) withIntermediate BTC-CBIR method. The performance of multileveled Intermediate BTC-CBIR increases graduallywith increase in level up to certain extent (Level 3) and thenincreases slightly due to voids being created at higher levels.In all level 3 of BTC Intermediate-9 BTC gives bestperformance.
 Keywords: CBIR, BTC, Multilevel BTC, Thresholding.
1. Introduction
Visual communication plays an important role in humancommunication. We live in digital era with advancement ininformation and communication technology. Large amount of digital data is generated, transmitted, stored, analyzed andaccessed. Mostly information is in multimedia nature such asdigital images, audio, video, graphics. From various sourceslarge amount of images are generated and it takes large volumefor storage purpose [1,2,3,4]. This store information in the formof images are more complex to retrieve and it is difficult to storein large volume. The need for efficient retrieval of images hasbeen recognized by managers of large image collections [5,6,7].To develop efficient indexing techniques for the retrieval of enormous volumes of images being generated these days,reasonable solutions need to be achieved. Content based imageretrieval (CBIR) is one of such attempts [8,9,10]. CBIR is usedto provide a high percentage of relevant images in response tothe query image. The goal of an image retrieval system is toretrieve a set of images from a collection of images such that thisset meets the use requirements [14,15,16]
. The user‟s
requirements can be specified in terms of similarity to someother image.The challenge to image indexing/management is studied in thecontext of image database, Image retrieval systems can bedivided into two main types: Text Based Image Retrieval andContent Based Image Retrieval [9].Text Based Image Retrieval is the traditional image retrievalsystem. In retrieval systems by adding text strings describing thecontent of an image. This system having drawbacks first It isvery time consuming technique. Second as per perception of information from same image different person having differentmeaning. Due to these drawbacks, Content Based ImageRetrieval (CBIR) is introduced [20].A Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) gives query as Imageand output is number of matching images to query image. In aCBIR, features are used to represent the image content. Thefeatures are extracted automatically and there is no manualintervention, thus eliminating the dependency on humans in thefeature extraction stage. The typical CBIR system performs twomajor tasks. The first one is feature extraction (FE), where a setof features, called feature vector, is generated to accuratelyrepresent the content of each image in the database. A featurevector is much smaller in size than the original image. Thesecond task is similarity measurement (SM), where a distancebetween the query image and each image in the database using
their signatures is computed so that the top “closest” images can
be retrieved [3, 11, 12, 13]. Many current CBIR system useEuclidean distance on the extracted feature set as a similaritymeasure. The Direct Euclidian distance [21] between image Pand query image Q can be given as equation 1. Where Vpi andVqi are the feature vectors of image P and query image Q
respectively with size „n‟.
 
ni
VqiVpi ED
1
2)(2 / 1
 (1)
Where, Vpi and Vqi be the feature vectors of image P and Query
image Q respectively with size „n‟
.
249http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 09, No.06, June 2011
The thirst of better and faster image retrieval techniques isincreasing day by day. Some of important applications for CBIRtechnology could be identified as art galleries [21], museums,archaeology, architecture design, geographic informationsystems, weather forecast, medical imaging, trademark databases, criminal investigations [19], image search on theinternet.
2. Block Truncation Coding (BTC)
Block truncation coding (BTC) is a relatively simple and basicimage coding or compression technique [14]. Many advancedcoding techniques were developed based on this technique. Itwas initially developed in 1979 for grayscale image coding. Inthis technique, the image to be compressed or coded is dividedinto small non-overlapping blocks of size 4x4 pixels or of sizewhich gives a reasonable resolution. Coding is done on oneblock at a time. A binary bit-map is created for each pixel withinthe block based on the block average mean. If the pixel value isgreater than the mean pixel value of the block, then value of 1 ismarked in the bitmap in the respective pixel position. Value of 0is marked if the pixel value is less than the block mean value.
 
As a next step, the bitmap table is divided into two bitmap tables
called “upper mean” and “lower mean”. Upper mean bitmap
table is created for all pixel positions having 1 as value andlower mean bitmap is created for all pixels having 0 as value.The upper mean table will take the original pixel value for thepixel position that has value 1 and 0 for rest of the pixel position.Similarly, the lower mean bitmap table will take original pixelvalue for the pixel positions that has 0 values and 0 for the restof pixel positions.
3. Thresholding Methods
In
BTC first the average of the image (referred as „threshold‟) is
taken and then it is used to divide all image pixels into twogroups, greater than average and lesser than average. The meansof each of these two groups per colour plane are considered asfeature vectors for BTC based CBIR. In conventional BTC thethreshold is computed by taking mean of all image pixels perplane which here is referred as Global thesholding. These meansper colour plane when concatenated together form feature vectorof respective image to be used in Global BTC based CBIR. Asshown in figure 1 there can be other possibilities of computingthe thresholds for dividing the image data into two clusters(greater and lesser than the threshold).The approach of local thresholding considers each 2x2 pixelblock separately to compute the threshold (as shown in figure1.b) and further all the pixels having value greater than localthresholds are grouped as upper cluster and other pixels havingvalues lower than the local thresholds form lower cluster,resulting again into feature vector having six values with loweraverage and upper average per plane, used for Local BTC basedCBIR.For intermediate-4 thresholding, the image is divided into fourquadrants (as shown in figure 1.c) and threshold for eachquadrant is considered separately, to divide pixels of each colourplane of the image into upper and lower clusters respectively;resulting into feature vector of size six values (two per colourplane, upper average and lower average) used in Intermediate-4BTC based CBIR.In the similar manner if the image is divided into nine nonoverlapping equal parts (as shown in figure 1.d) and thresholdover each part is considered to divide the pixels in that part intoupper and lower clusters, intermediate-9 thresholding is used.The generated feature vector with upper mean and lower meanper colour plane of the image is used in Intermediate-9 BTCbased CBIR.Figure 1. Proposed Thresholding Methods to be used in BTC
4. CBIR using Global BTC level-1 (BTC-6) [3, 4, 5, 18, 22]
 In original BTC the image is divided into R, B, and Gcomponents and the inter band average image (IBAI) iscomputed, which is the average of all the components(R, G, andB) and mean of inter band average image is taken as threshold.By using three independent R, G and B components of colorimages to calculate three different thresholds and then applyBTC to each individual R, G and B planes. Let the thresholds beMR, MG and MB, which could be computed as per the equations2, 3 and 4 given below.
min j
 ji Rnm MR
1 1
),(*1
 (2)X
min j
 jiGnm MG
1 1
),(*1
 (3)
250http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 09, No.06, June 2011
V 

min j
 ji Bnm MB
1 1
),(*1
 (4)Then the three binary bitmaps are computed as BMr, BMg andBMb respectively as given in equations 5, 6 and 7. If a pixel ineach component (R, G, and B) is greater than or equal to therespective threshold, the corresponding pixel position of thebitmap will have a value of 1 otherwise it will have a value of 0.
 MR ji Rif   MR ji Rif   ji BMr 

),(...,....0 ),(....,1 {),(
 (5)
 MG jiGif   MG jiGif   ji BMg

),(...,....0 ),(....,1 {),(
 (6)
 MB ji Bif   MB ji Bif   ji BMb

),(...,....0 ),(....,1 {),(
 (7)Two mean colors one for the pixels greater than or equal to thethreshold and other for the pixels smaller than the threshold arealso calculated [15]. The upper mean color UM (UR, UG, UB) isgiven as follows in equations 8,9 and 10.
),(*),(* ),(1
1 11 1
 ji R ji BMr   ji BMr UR
min jmin j
 (8)
),(*),(* ),(1
1 11 1
 jiG ji BMg  ji BMgUG
min jmin j
 (9)
),(*),(* ),(1
1 11 1
 ji B ji BMb  ji BMbUB
min jmin j
 (10)And the Lower Mean LM= (LR, LG, LB) is computed asfollowing equations 11, 12 and 13.
),(*)},(1{* ),(* 1
1 11 1
 ji R ji BMr   ji BMr nm  LR
min jmin j
 (11)
),(*)},(1{* ),(* 1
1 11 1
 jiG ji BMg  ji BMgnm  LG
min jmin j
 (12)
),(*)},(1{* ),(* 1
1 11 1
 ji B ji BMb  ji BMbnm  LB
min jmin j

 (13)
5. CBIR using Multilevel Global BTC [1][2]
 In Multilevel BTC [1,2] the colour averages are found atdifferent levels of Block Truncation Coding. The increase in thelevel of BTC results into increased feature vector size. Thefeature vector at a particular level of BTC is used for retrievingimages from large database. In the paper the multilevel BTC isapplied on local and intermediate thresholding methods.Figure 2: Multilevel BTC
 
CBIR using BTC-Level 2 (BTC-12)
 In BTC- Level 2 the image data is divided into 12 parts using thesix means obtained in BTC-Level 1. Here the bitmap areprepared using upper and lower mean values of individual colourcomponents. For red color
component the bitmap „BMUR‟ and„BMLR‟ are ge
nerated as given in equations 14 and 15.Similarly for green color
component „BMUG‟ & „BMLR‟ and
for blue color
components „BMUB‟ & „BMLB‟ can be
generated.
UR ji Rif  UR ji Rif   ji BMUR

),(...,....0 ),(....,1 {),(
 (14) 
 LR ji Rif   LR ji Rif   ji BMLR

),(...,....0 ),(....,1 {),(
 (15) Using this bitmap the two mean colors per bitmap one for thepixels greater than or equal to the threshold and other for thepixels smaller than the threshold are calculated [15]. The uppermean color UM (UUR, ULR, UUG, ULG, UUB, ULB) aregiven as equations 16 and 17.
),(*),(* ),(1
1 11 1
 ji Iur  ji BMUR  ji BMURUUR
min jmin j
 (16) 
),(*),(* ),(1
1 11 1
 ji Ilr  ji BMLR  ji BMLRULR
min jmin j
 (17) And the first two components of Lower Mean LM= (LUR, LLR,LUG, LLG, LUB, LLB) are computed using following equations18 and 19.
251http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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