1.2 Directed Diffusion Protocol
Directed diffusion, developed by Intanagonwiwat et al. , isa data-centric protocol. Directed diffusion consists of severalelements: interests, data messages, gradients, andreinforcements. An
message is a query or aninterrogation which specifies what a user wants. Each interestcontains a description of a sensing task that is supported by asensor network for acquiring data. Typically,
in sensor networks is the collected or processed information of a physical phenomenon. Such data can be an
, which is ashort description of the sensed phenomenon. In directeddiffusion, attribute-value pairs are used to name data. Asensing task is disseminated throughout the sensor network asan interest
for named data. This dissemination sets upgradients
within the network designed to “draw” events.Specifically, a gradient
is direction state created in each nodethat receives an interest. The direction of the Gradient isalways towards the nearest node from where interest isreceived. Events start flowing toward the originators of interests along multiple gradient paths. An important featureof directed diffusion is that interest and data propagation andaggregation are determined by localized interactions
(messageexchanges between neighbours or nodes within some vicinity).
1.3 LEACH Protocol
Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy(LEACH) is completely distributed, clustering and the most popular hierarchical routing protocol for Distributed Sensor Networks, requiring no control information from the basestation. In LEACH, higher energy nodes can be used to process and send the information while lower energy nodescan be used to perform the sensing. This means that creationof Clusters and assigning special tasks to cluster-heads cangreatly contribute to overall system scalability, lifetime, andenergy efficiency.
Cryptography is the art or science of keeping messages secret.Cryptosystems are classified in to Symmetric and Asymmetric.Symmetric cryptosystems use same secret key to encrypt plaintext and decrypt cipher text. This means both sender andreceiver must have same secret key for the cryptosystem. This presents two difficulties. The first is private distribution of secrete keys, and the other is how to manage large number of secrete keys. The advantage of symmetric cryptosystems isgood performance for enciphering and deciphering, enablingthem to encrypt large messages.Integral to the design of an asymmetric cryptosystem is theutilization of a one way trapdoor function. It has to becomputationally infeasible for an adversary to retrieve the private key from the published public values of thecryptosystem. On the other hand, for the user it has to becomputationally feasible to compute the process involving thefunction. The asymmetric cryptosystems use different keys for encryption and decryption respectively. Public key is used for encryption and it’s related private key is used for decryption.The critical feature of asymmetric cryptography is this key pair-public key and private key. The fact that one of the keyscannot be obtained from the other. The asymmetriccryptosystems are suitable for encrypting small messages. Wehave selected ElGamal and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)crypto systems for Analysis.
1.4.1ElGamal Crypto System
ElGamal crypto system is designed by Taher ElGamal in 1985.Security of the ElGamal crypto system depends on thedifficulty of computing discrete logs
in a large prime modulus.ElGamal Cryptosystem is vulnerable to chosen cipher textattacks. The security of this system depends on how big thekey size is.
1.4.2 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
ECC is based on theory of elliptic curves. The key size inECC is the logarithm of the number of points on the chosen prime sub group of points on the elliptic curve. The small keysize in ECC provides greater security. For faster cryptographicoperations and reliability, ECC can be implemented inhardware chips also.
Energy is one of the very important resources of any DSNs,the Analysis of the energy dissipation by the routing protocols and security crypto systems gives the variousdomains to improve the Performance and to increase the Lifecycle of the network.2. RELATED WORK The important issues of information routing in DSN given in.The Directed Diffusion protocol’s working analogy, propagation gradients and reinforced path established aregiven in . This information is used for Estimation of Energy Dissipated for the data transmission from a node toSink (Base Station).One of the most preferred energy efficient routing protocols of DSN is LEACH protocol. It is developed by W.R.Heinzelman et al. This paper explains in detail aboutCluster formation, Cluster Head selection for the first roundand the procedure to be followed for the next rounds, andcommunication protocols used for data transmission such asTDMA, CSMA and CDMA.ElGamal is an Asymmetric crypto system. The advantages of using Asymmetric crypto systems are 1) supports digitalSignatures (Authentication), 2) provides CryptographicServices such as Confidentiality and Data Integrity and 3)makes it possible to implement Key Exchange, Secrete keyDerivation . The key generation, encryption andDecryption algorithms information is provided in , .ECC is most preferred Asymmetric Crypto System. It provides better Security Services for a small Key Size. Ellipticcurve crypto systems can be implemented with smaller parameters for the better level of security against the bestknown attacks, which leads to improved performance in
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011257http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500