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Performance Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms Like ElGamal, RSA, and ECC for Routing Protocols in Distributed Sensor Networks

Performance Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms Like ElGamal, RSA, and ECC for Routing Protocols in Distributed Sensor Networks

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Published by ijcsis
Distributed Sensor Networks (DSNs) are multihop networks, which depend on the intermediate nodes to transmit the data packet to the destination. These nodes are equipped with lesser memory, limited battery power, little computation capability, small range of communication and need a secured and efficient routing path to forward the incoming packet. Sensor nodes are used to collect data in hostile environments, but the energy, processing speed and security are very much concerned in large scale deployment. In this paper, the comparisons of two routing protocols (FLAT and HIERARCHICAL) have been made with respect to Energy Dissipation for transmission of data and also with and without security features for the routing protocols. The cryptographic algorithms such as ElGamal, RSA and ECC, provide security features like Confidentiality are considered for the performance Analysis. The proposed model estimates the energy required for providing security features for the routing protocols.
Distributed Sensor Networks (DSNs) are multihop networks, which depend on the intermediate nodes to transmit the data packet to the destination. These nodes are equipped with lesser memory, limited battery power, little computation capability, small range of communication and need a secured and efficient routing path to forward the incoming packet. Sensor nodes are used to collect data in hostile environments, but the energy, processing speed and security are very much concerned in large scale deployment. In this paper, the comparisons of two routing protocols (FLAT and HIERARCHICAL) have been made with respect to Energy Dissipation for transmission of data and also with and without security features for the routing protocols. The cryptographic algorithms such as ElGamal, RSA and ECC, provide security features like Confidentiality are considered for the performance Analysis. The proposed model estimates the energy required for providing security features for the routing protocols.

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Performance Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms LikeElGamal, RSA, and ECC for Routing Protocols inDistributed Sensor Networks.
 
Suresha
 
, Dr.Nalini.N
 
,
 Department of CSE, Reva Institute of Technology and Management, Bangalore ,Karnataka, India Prof. and Head, Department of CSE  Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
 Abstract 
-
 
Distributed Sensor Networks (DSNs) are multihopnetworks, which depend on the intermediate nodes to transmitthe data packet to the destination. These nodes are equipped withlesser memory, limited battery power, little computationcapability, small range of communication and need a secured andefficient routing path to forward the incoming packet. Sensornodes are used to collect data in hostile environments, but theenergy, processing speed and security are very much concernedin large scale deployment. In this paper, the comparisons of tworouting protocols (FLAT and HIERARCHICAL) have beenmade with respect to Energy Dissipation for transmission of dataand also with and without security features for the routingprotocols. The cryptographic algorithms such as ElGamal, RSAand ECC, provide security features like Confidentiality areconsidered for the performance Analysis. The proposed modelestimates the energy required for providing security features forthe routing protocols.
 
Keywords
Routing Protocols, Energy, Cryptosystems.I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 A Distributed Sensor network (DSN) comprises a multitude of tiny nodes, collaborating in their sensing, processing andcommunication process to accomplish high-level applicationtasks. DSNs provide persistent, unattended monitoring of natural and man-made phenomena in applications such ashomeland security, law enforcement, military reconnaissance,space exploration, environmental monitoring, and earlywarning of natural disasters. These applications often demandcontinuous monitoring of physical phenomena for extended periods of time without the possibility of replenishing theenergy supply at each node. Thus the effectiveness of a DSNdepends on its efficiency in using the limited energy supply.A typical sensor network (for monitoring applications)consists of hundreds of tiny, short-range, energy constrained,wireless sensors deployed densely in the target area to senseand communicate information.
1.1 Information Routing Issues in DSN 
A processing node receives a bulk of data from the sensor it isassociated with at regular intervals, generally at a fixed rate.After some amount of processing at the node, this informationhas to be sent to some or all other nodes in the network,depending on the problem solving technique. It is imperativethat the information is routed to the destination nodes in anefficient manner since the data generation is repetitive.Generally, data are transmitted to the destination nodes in packets. Some of the requirements in information routing inDSN are as follows.1) It is desirable to have the entire information generated by asensor, in one packet.2) In most of the DSN applications, the sensor data will begenerated and transmitted in each sensing cycle. Since thedata exchange is almost continuous, the routing protocolsshould be designed such that an explicit ACKNOWLEDGE isnot used for each packet. This saves enormous traffic on thenetwork considering the size of DSN and also Energy.3) By not using acknowledge messages, it is necessary to seethat much data is not lost and hence it is necessary to route the packets within a maximum allowable time with minimumdistance.4) DSN is envisaged to operate under hostile environments. Itis therefore necessary to employ reliable point to-point routing protocols.Therefore, sensor network lifetime is a primary concern insensor network design. In order to enhance the network lifetime for a particular application, many routing protocols have been devised. These protocols can be classified into threecategories. Flat, Hierarchical and Location based routing protocols. The flat routing protocols are simple and robust andsuitable for small networks and hierarchical protocols need toselect and manage clusters, they are complex and suitable for large scale networks. In FLAT routing and hierarchicalrouting protocols, we have selected the Directed Diffusion andLEACH protocols for the Analysis.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011256http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
1.2 Directed Diffusion Protocol 
Directed diffusion, developed by Intanagonwiwat et al. [7], isa data-centric protocol. Directed diffusion consists of severalelements: interests, data messages, gradients, andreinforcements. An
interest 
message is a query or aninterrogation which specifies what a user wants. Each interestcontains a description of a sensing task that is supported by asensor network for acquiring data. Typically,
data
in sensor networks is the collected or processed information of a physical phenomenon. Such data can be an
event 
, which is ashort description of the sensed phenomenon. In directeddiffusion, attribute-value pairs are used to name data. Asensing task is disseminated throughout the sensor network asan interest
 
for named data. This dissemination sets upgradients
 
within the network designed to “draw” events.Specifically, a gradient
 
is direction state created in each nodethat receives an interest. The direction of the Gradient isalways towards the nearest node from where interest isreceived. Events start flowing toward the originators of interests along multiple gradient paths. An important featureof directed diffusion is that interest and data propagation andaggregation are determined by localized interactions
 
(messageexchanges between neighbours or nodes within some vicinity).
1.3 LEACH Protocol 
Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy(LEACH) is completely distributed, clustering and the most popular hierarchical routing protocol for Distributed Sensor  Networks, requiring no control information from the basestation. In LEACH, higher energy nodes can be used to process and send the information while lower energy nodescan be used to perform the sensing. This means that creationof Clusters and assigning special tasks to cluster-heads cangreatly contribute to overall system scalability, lifetime, andenergy efficiency.
1.4 Cryptosystems
Cryptography is the art or science of keeping messages secret.Cryptosystems are classified in to Symmetric and Asymmetric.Symmetric cryptosystems use same secret key to encrypt plaintext and decrypt cipher text. This means both sender andreceiver must have same secret key for the cryptosystem. This presents two difficulties. The first is private distribution of secrete keys, and the other is how to manage large number of secrete keys. The advantage of symmetric cryptosystems isgood performance for enciphering and deciphering, enablingthem to encrypt large messages.Integral to the design of an asymmetric cryptosystem is theutilization of a one way trapdoor function. It has to becomputationally infeasible for an adversary to retrieve the private key from the published public values of thecryptosystem. On the other hand, for the user it has to becomputationally feasible to compute the process involving thefunction. The asymmetric cryptosystems use different keys for encryption and decryption respectively. Public key is used for encryption and it’s related private key is used for decryption.The critical feature of asymmetric cryptography is this key pair-public key and private key. The fact that one of the keyscannot be obtained from the other. The asymmetriccryptosystems are suitable for encrypting small messages. Wehave selected ElGamal and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)crypto systems for Analysis.
1.4.1ElGamal Crypto System
ElGamal crypto system is designed by Taher ElGamal in 1985.Security of the ElGamal crypto system depends on thedifficulty of computing discrete logs
 
in a large prime modulus.ElGamal Cryptosystem is vulnerable to chosen cipher textattacks. The security of this system depends on how big thekey size is.
1.4.2 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
ECC is based on theory of elliptic curves. The key size inECC is the logarithm of the number of points on the chosen prime sub group of points on the elliptic curve. The small keysize in ECC provides greater security. For faster cryptographicoperations and reliability, ECC can be implemented inhardware chips also.
1.5 Analysis
Energy is one of the very important resources of any DSNs,the Analysis of the energy dissipation by the routing protocols and security crypto systems gives the variousdomains to improve the Performance and to increase the Lifecycle of the network.2. RELATED WORK The important issues of information routing in DSN given in[1].The Directed Diffusion protocol’s working analogy, propagation gradients and reinforced path established aregiven in [2]. This information is used for Estimation of Energy Dissipated for the data transmission from a node toSink (Base Station).One of the most preferred energy efficient routing protocols of DSN is LEACH protocol. It is developed by W.R.Heinzelman et al[8]. This paper explains in detail aboutCluster formation, Cluster Head selection for the first roundand the procedure to be followed for the next rounds, andcommunication protocols used for data transmission such asTDMA, CSMA and CDMA.ElGamal is an Asymmetric crypto system. The advantages of using Asymmetric crypto systems are 1) supports digitalSignatures (Authentication), 2) provides CryptographicServices such as Confidentiality and Data Integrity and 3)makes it possible to implement Key Exchange, Secrete keyDerivation [9]. The key generation, encryption andDecryption algorithms information is provided in [3], [4].ECC is most preferred Asymmetric Crypto System. It provides better Security Services for a small Key Size. Ellipticcurve crypto systems can be implemented with smaller  parameters for the better level of security against the bestknown attacks, which leads to improved performance in
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011257http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
wireless sensor area [5]. For elliptic curves, the groupoperation is written as addition instead of multiplication, andin that case exponentiation is more appropriately referred to asscalar multiplication, For efficient implementation of ECC, itis important for the point multiplication algorithm and theunderlying field arithmetic to be efficient. There are differentmethods for efficient implementation point multiplication andfield arithmetic suited for different configurationsThis paper is an extension of the Performance Analysis of Security in FLAT and HIERARCHICAL routing protocols for Distributed Sensor Networks [15] and makes an analysis of the power dissipation of the Directed Diffusion (FLAT) andLEACH (HIERACHICAL) protocols and also estimates theenergy required for the provision of security to these protocols by using ElGamal, RSA and ECC Crypto systems.Rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 3describes the Proposed Performance Model. Section 4 provides simulation details. Result analysis is discussed insection 5 and finally, conclusions are given in section 6.3. PROPOSED PERFORMANCE MODELIn a DSN, energy and security are two key considerations.Although security is the design goal, it is not practical toevaluate a cryptographic scheme by taking the security levelas a metric. Although security schemes can be identified tohave weaknesses, such flaws are not always evident or easilyquantifiable [12]. We like to estimate the Energy required for Routing the information for two protocols and also todetermine Energy required to provide Security for theseRouting protocols.
3.1 Directed Diffusion Protocol Model 
In Directed Diffusion protocol, the area is divided into 3 zones.Once the network is set, we check all the hundred nodes to seewhich of the node’s sensed data falls in-between the specifiedtemperature range. The nodes falling in the range only willtransmit the data to the base station using multi-hop strategy.If the data has to be sent by a node in the peripheral area, thenit first finds the nearest node in the second zone and passes thedata to it. This strategy will be used by all the intermediatenodes till the node near-by the base station is reached, thisnode then sends the data to the base station thus completingthe data transmission [10].
 
3.2 Leach Protocol Model 
LEACH protocol uses a distributed cluster formationtechnique, which enables self-organization of large numbersof nodes. There are two types of nodes: cluster-head andsensing nodes. The nodes are organized in clusters, eachhaving one node promoted as the Cluster Head. All sensingnodes transmit their data to their respective Cluster Head,which further routes it to the remote sink node [6]. LEACHuses Cluster Head rotation for even distribution of energy loadamong all the nodes in a cluster. The nodes forward their datato the sink through the Cluster Head. [10].During the cluster formation, randomly a node declares itself as a cluster-head in the beginning with a certain probability.Afterwards, the principle of cluster-head selection is asfollows: each node randomly generates a random number  between 0 and 1, if the random number is lower than thethreshold, it will be a cluster head, or it is an ordinary node.Threshold is calculated by the formula:
 
T(n) is the threshold value.
 
P describes desired percentage of Cluster i.e., the probability of the other nodes to become cluster head inthe current round.
 
G is the set of nodes that have not been CHs in the last 1/Prounds.
 
r is the current round number.
 
n is the node number.Once the cluster-head is selected in each cluster, thecluster-head broadcasts a message containing its ID to all thenodes in the respective cluster. The nodes then register to thecorresponding cluster-head by transmitting a message back tothe chosen cluster head using Carrier Sense Multiple Access(CSMA) MAC protocol and Once the cluster head receives allthe registrations, it allocates a communication time slot toeach member node based on Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA). The sensing nodes of the cluster send the senseddata during the allotted time slot to the cluster-head. Intra-cluster collisions are avoided/removed by using TDMA protocol. After the reception of all the data, the cluster headconsolidates the data using Data fusion technique [8,9]. Oncethe data is fused by the cluster-head, it will be sent to the basestation using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).The LEACH protocol on implementation yielded considerablyimproved results as compared to that of the Directed Diffusionrouting protocol. The complete data transmission from thenodes to the base station is said to be one cycle or one round.
3.3 ElGamal Crypto System Model 
ElGamal is based on the discrete logarithms. The ElGamalencryption-decryption scheme is one of the most popular andwidely used public-key cryptosystems. It is described in thesetting of the multiplicative group Z; of the field Zp = {a,1,2,3, . . . , p- I}, the field of integers modulo a prime integer p.The multiplicative group, Z
 p*
, is a cyclic group generated bysome generator 
α≠
1 whose order is equal to p – 1. That is,every element of Z; is a power of a. Note that Zp is a completeresidue system modulo p and Z; is a reduced residue systemmodulo p.The key generation, Encryption and Decryption algorithms of ElGamal crypto systems are as follows.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011258http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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