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Secured Right Angled or Ant Search Protocol for Reducing Congestion Effects and Detecting Malicious Node in Mobile Ad hoc Networks by Multipath Routing

Secured Right Angled or Ant Search Protocol for Reducing Congestion Effects and Detecting Malicious Node in Mobile Ad hoc Networks by Multipath Routing

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Published by ijcsis
In this paper, we develop a security based protocol using Biased Geographical – Ant Search multipath
routing approach which attains confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers of
MANETs. In first phase we developed a new method for routing the packets from source to destination using right angled geographical routing techniques and shortest path by ant search method to reduce congestion effects. Secondly we proposed a protocol called SRAOA (Secured Right Angled or Ant Search) an on-demand routing protocol. Thirdly, we added security to our proposed protocol using MD 5 (digest algorithm) which provides link level security for the packets transmission between source and destination and for detecting and isolating malicious nodes using certificate generation for the nodes which are in the parent network. In the next phase of the protocol,
we did encryption and decryption for authentication, we used RSA algorithm. The performance of our SRAOA protocol is compared / validated with some prominent routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, in the presence of malicious node in the simulation environment, namely Ad hoc On Demand Distance vector (AODV) and Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV), DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector. We have chosen four performance metrics, such as Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput. We did simulation for the protocol scheme in NS-2. Simulation results show that RAOA achieves the fairness throughput, high packet delivery attaining low delay and overhead in the presence of malicious nodes.
In this paper, we develop a security based protocol using Biased Geographical – Ant Search multipath
routing approach which attains confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers of
MANETs. In first phase we developed a new method for routing the packets from source to destination using right angled geographical routing techniques and shortest path by ant search method to reduce congestion effects. Secondly we proposed a protocol called SRAOA (Secured Right Angled or Ant Search) an on-demand routing protocol. Thirdly, we added security to our proposed protocol using MD 5 (digest algorithm) which provides link level security for the packets transmission between source and destination and for detecting and isolating malicious nodes using certificate generation for the nodes which are in the parent network. In the next phase of the protocol,
we did encryption and decryption for authentication, we used RSA algorithm. The performance of our SRAOA protocol is compared / validated with some prominent routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, in the presence of malicious node in the simulation environment, namely Ad hoc On Demand Distance vector (AODV) and Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV), DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector. We have chosen four performance metrics, such as Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput. We did simulation for the protocol scheme in NS-2. Simulation results show that RAOA achieves the fairness throughput, high packet delivery attaining low delay and overhead in the presence of malicious nodes.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jul 07, 2011
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Secured Right Angled or Ant Search Protocol for Reducing CongestionEffects and Detecting Malicious Node in Mobile Ad hoc Networksby Multipath Routing
 
Lt. Dr. S Santhosh Baboo, Reader V J Chakravarthy
P.G. Research Dept of Com. Science Research ScholarArumbakkam, Chennai 106. Dravidian UniversityD G Vaishnav College,Arumbakkam, Chennai – 106.
Abstract – In this paper, we develop asecurity based protocol using BiasedGeographical – Ant Search multipathrouting approach which attainsconfidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers of MANETs. In first phase we developed anew method for routing the packets fromsource to destination using right angledgeographical routing techniques andshortest path by ant search method toreduce congestion effects. Secondly weproposed a protocol called SRAOA(Secured Right Angled or Ant Search) anon-demand routing protocol. Thirdly, weadded security to our proposed protocolusing MD 5 (digest algorithm) whichprovides link level security for the packetstransmission between source anddestination and for detecting and isolatingmalicious nodes using certificate generationfor the nodes which are in the parentnetwork. In the next phase of the protocol,we did encryption and decryption forauthentication, we used RSA algorithm.The performance of our SRAOA protocol iscompared / validated with some prominentrouting protocols for mobile ad hocnetworks, in the presence of malicious nodein the simulation environment, namely Adhoc On Demand Distance vector (AODV)and Ad hoc On-demand MultipathDistance Vector (AOMDV), DSR (DynamicSource Routing), DSDV (DestinationSequenced Distance Vector. We havechosen four performance metrics, such asAverage Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio,Routing Load, and Throughput. We didsimulation for the protocol scheme in NS-2.Simulation results show that RAOAachieves the fairness throughput, highpacket delivery attaining low delay andoverhead in the presence of maliciousnodes.I. INTRODUCTIONA. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is atemporary infrastructure less multi-hopwireless network in which the nodes can movearbitrarily. Such networks extends the limitedwireless transmission range of each node bymulti-hop packet forwarding, thus well suitedfor the scenarios in which pre-deployedinfrastructure support is not available. In adhoc network, there is no fixed infrastructuresuch as base stations or mobile switchingcenters. Mobile nodes that are within eachother’s radio range communicate directly viawireless links, while those that are far apartrely on other nodes to relay messages frequentchanges of the network topology. Mobile adhoc networks are finding ever increasingapplications in both military and civilianscenarios due to their self-organizing, self-configuring capabilities.The following figure 1 shows mobile ad hocnetwork which consists of five mobile nodes.Let us consider the mobile node 5 out of transmission range from the mobile node 2. If mobile node 2 wants to send packets to node 5(i.e., wants of establish communication withnode 5). Now the node 2 sends the packets tonode 3 and node 3 transmits to node 4, since
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011275http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 the node 3 and node 4 are in transmissionrange with both node 2 and node 5 or the nodedirectly sends the packets to node 5 if the node4 is busy. Thus the node 2 is able tocommunicate node 5 successfully.
41
 
3
 
2
 
5
 
Figure 1
The major difference between fixed networksand MANET is that the computers in aMANET are mobile (which are motion).
B. Vulnerability of Existing Protocols
The security of communication in ad hocwireless networks is important especially inmilitary applications. The absence of anycentral coordination mechanism and sharedwireless medium makes MANETs morevulnerable to digital/cyber attacks than wirenetworks. Malicious and selfish nodes are theones that fabricate attack against physical,link, network, and application-layerfunctionality. Current routing protocols areexposed of two types of attacks: Passive andActive attacks.
Passive Attacks
A passive attack does not disrupt the operationof the network; it occurs when an attacker triesto eavesdrop on the data or the network trafficwithout altering it. This can violate therequirements of confidentiality if an adversaryis also able to interpret that data gatheredthrough snooping. This type of attack is lessharmful than an active one, but is much harderto detect, because the attacker does notinterfere with the operation. One way of overcoming such problems is to use powerfulencryption mechanism to encrypt data beingtransmitted, thus making it impossible foreavesdroppers to obtain any usefulinformation from the data overhead.
Active Attacks
An Active attack, is one where the attackeractively seeks to modify, abstract, alter ordestroy the data being exchanged, thusdisrupting the normal functioning of thenetwork. Active attacks can be classifiedfurther into two types: external and internal.External attacks come from nodes that do notbelong to the network; they can be preventedby using standard security mechanism such asencryption techniques and firewalls. Internalattacks, however, are from compromisednodes that belong to the network. Since theadversaries are already part of of the network as authorized nodes, such attacks are moresevere and difficult to detect than externalones.Within these categories, there are manydifferent types of attack that mobile ad hocnetworks may face, some of which aredescribed here.
Wormhole attack
All packets are dropped by sending forgedrouting packets, the attacker could route allpackets, the attacker could route all packetsfor some destination to itself and then discardthem, or the attacker could cause the route atall nodes in an area of the network to point“into” that area when infact the destination isoutside the area.
Black hole attack
Using a pair of attacker nodes A and B linkedvia a private network connection. Everypacket that A receives from ad hocnetwork, A forwards through the wormhole toB, to then be rebroadcast by B, similarly, Bmay send all ad hoc network packets to A.
Byzantine attack
A compromised intermediate node works byitself, or a set of compromised intermediatenodes works in collusion and carries outattacks at the creation of routing loops,
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011276http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 forwarding packets on non-optimal paths andselectively dropping packets.
Information disclosure
An attacker may disclose private or importantinformation to unauthorized nodes in thenetwork. Such information may includeinformation regarding the location of nodes orthe structure of the network. It gathers thenode location information, such as a routetable, then plans to attack in further scenarios.
Resource consumption attack
A malicious node can attempt to consume orwaste resources of other nodes in the network.The resources targeted are bandwidth,computational power and battery life, whichare limited in ad hoc wireless networks. Suchattacks may be in the form of requestingexcessive route discovery, very frequentgeneration of beacon packets, or forwardingunnecessary packets to an unsuspecting node.
Partition
An attacker may try to partition the network by injecting forged routing packets to preventone set of nodes from reaching another.
Detour
An attacker may attempt to cause a node todetours through suboptimal routes. Alsocompromised nodes may try to work togetherto create a routing loop.
Session Hijacking
One weak point is that most authenticationsprocesses are only carried out once when asession starts. An adversary could try toappear as an authentic node and hijack thesession.
Dos
An adversary tries to disturb thecommunication in a network, for example byflooding the network with a huge amount of packages. Service offered by the network arenot working as usual, slow down or even stop.Ad hoc wireless networks are more affectedthan wired networks, because there are morepossibilities to perform such an attack.
Table 1Security Solution for MANETs
Layer Security Issues
Application Layer Detecting and preventingViruses, Worms, Maliciouscodes, and applicationsabuses.Transport Layer Authentication and Securingend-to-end communicationthrough date encryptionNetwork Layer Protecting the ad hoc routingand forwarding protocolsLink Layer Protecting the wireless MACprotocol and providing link layer security supportPhysical Layer Preventing Signal jamming,denial-of-service attacks
II. OBJECTIVE & OVERVIEW OF THEPROPOSED PROTOCOL
A
. Objectives
In this paper, we propose to design acongestion reduced and security basedprotocol – Right angled or Ant Search(RAOA) which is the enhancement overAOMDV protocol, which works on energybased approach which attain highconfidentiality and authentication of packets inrouting layer and layer of MANETs, havingthe following objectives:
light weight
in order to increase the network lifetime to provide, the application of ciphersthat are computationally efficient like thesymmetric-key algorithms and cryptographichash functions
cooperative
to establish high-level securitywith the aid of mutualcollaboration/cooperation amidst nodes alongwith other protocols
attack-tolerant
to facilitate the network toresist attacks to heal itself by detecting,recognizing, and eliminating the sources andtypes of attacks
flexible & energy
enough to trade security forenergy consumption
Compatible
with the security methodologiesand services in existence
scalable
to the rapidly growing network side
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011277http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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