Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Side Lobe Reduction Of A Planar Array Antenna By Complex Weight Control Using SQP Algorithm And Tchebychev Method

Side Lobe Reduction Of A Planar Array Antenna By Complex Weight Control Using SQP Algorithm And Tchebychev Method

Ratings: (0)|Views: 155 |Likes:
Published by ijcsis
In this paper, we propose an efficient hybrid method based on the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm and Dolph-Tchebychev for the pattern synthesis of planar antenna arrays with prescribed pattern nulls in the interference direction and minimum side lobe levels SLL by controlling only the phase of each array element. The SQP algorithm is the most widely used to solve nonlinear optimization problems. It consists of transforming the nonlinear problem to sequence of quadratic subproblems by using a quadratic approximation of
the lagrangian function. In order to illustrate the performance of the proposed method, several examples of complex excited planar array patterns with one-half wavelength spaced isotropic elements to place the main beam in the direction of the useful signal while reduce the side lobe level were investigated.
In this paper, we propose an efficient hybrid method based on the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm and Dolph-Tchebychev for the pattern synthesis of planar antenna arrays with prescribed pattern nulls in the interference direction and minimum side lobe levels SLL by controlling only the phase of each array element. The SQP algorithm is the most widely used to solve nonlinear optimization problems. It consists of transforming the nonlinear problem to sequence of quadratic subproblems by using a quadratic approximation of
the lagrangian function. In order to illustrate the performance of the proposed method, several examples of complex excited planar array patterns with one-half wavelength spaced isotropic elements to place the main beam in the direction of the useful signal while reduce the side lobe level were investigated.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Jul 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/10/2013

pdf

text

original

 
JOURNAL OF L
A
TEX CLASS FILES, VOL. 9, NO. 6, JUNE 2011 1
Side Lobe Reduction of a planar array antenna bycomplex weight control using SQP algorithm andTchebychev method
A. Hammami,R. Ghayoula,and A. GharsallahUnit´e de recherche : Circuits et systmes´electroniques HFFacult´e des Sciences de Tunis,Campus Universitaire Tunis EL-manar, 2092,TunisieEmail: hammami.a.fst@gmail.com
 Abstract
—In this paper, we propose an efficient hybrid methodbased on the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithmand Dolph-Tchebychev for the pattern synthesis of planar an-tenna arrays with prescribed pattern nulls in the interferencedirection and minimum side lobe levels SLL by controlling onlythe phase of each array element. The SQP algorithm is themost widely used to solve nonlinear optimization problems. Itconsists of transforming the nonlinear problem to sequence of quadratic subproblems by using a quadratic approximation of the lagrangian function. In order to illustrate the performanceof the proposed method, several examples of complex excitedplanar array patterns with one-half wavelength spaced isotropicelements to place the main beam in the direction of the usefulsignal while reduce the side lobe level were investigated.
 Index Terms
—Planar antenna arrays, Synthesis method, nullsteering, sequential quadratic programming
I. I
NTRODUCTION
A
RRAYS antennas are used to steer radiated power to-wards a desired angular sector and to suppress or toreduce side lobe level. The choice of the array antenna param-eters such us number elements, geometrical arrangement, andamplitudes and phases excitation depend on the angular patternthat must be achieved. A linear array allows beam steering inone dimension. however, a planar array has two dimensions of control, permitting a narrow pencil beam to be produced andthe control of the shape in both directions. Several antennaarray pattern synthesis antenna have been developed to steerthe main beam at the desired direction and to reduce the sidelobe level [1]-[17].Although the large number of elements in planar arrays,which translates into Although the large number of unknownparameters for the optimization algorithms,Some of theseworks are interested in planar array antennas pattern synthesis.In the few years, various techniques has been used to synthesisa planar array antenna radion pattern. For the arbitrarily shapedcoverages, the synthesis pattern techniques can be classifiedinto categories [17]. Mathematical optimization deterministictechniques are based on local gradient optimization method-ologies such as Newton type algorithm, sequential quadraticprogramming (SQP)[2] algorithm... Mathematical optimiza-tion stochastic techniques are global optimization methodolo-gies like genetic algorithm [17][23], Differential evolutionalgorithm [11], particle swarm optimization algorithm [19] .In this study, we propose a synthesis method for an uniformplanar array antennas based on SQP and Tchebychev algo-rithms by controlling both the amplitude and phase (complexweights control).The paper is organized as follows; theoretical description ispresented in section II. Section III shows the optimizationprocess. Section VI shows simulations and results and finally,section VI makes conclusions.II. T
HEORETICAL DESCRIPTION
Consider a planar array composed by
×
equi-spacedisotropic antenna elements arranged in a regular rectangulararray in the x-y plane, with inter-elements spacing
d
=
d
x
=
d
y
=
λ/
2
as shown in figure 2.The planar array antenna can be seen as a linear array of linear arrays. The total field of a
×
elements is themultiplication of the element radiation
0
in the coordinatesby the the sum of the normalized excitations currents on thearray elements [15][16].The perturbed array pattern can be written as
tot
=
|
0
.
m
=1
n
=1
a
mn
e
j
(
ψ
mn
+
α
mn
)
|
(1)with
a
mn
is the amplitude of the excitation of the element
(
m,n
)
,
α
mn
represents the phase excitation of the element
(
m,n
)
,Moreover,
ψ
mn
is the phase of element
(
m,n
)
relativeto the
(1
,
1)
element.
ψ
mn
is then given by
ψ
kl
=
k
(
m
1)
d
x
sinθcosϕ
+
k
(
n
1)
d
y
sinθsinϕ
)
(2)with
d
x
and
d
y
are inter-element distance along the x-axisand inter-element distance along the y-axis respectively.The planar array radiation pattern a becomes
284http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
JOURNAL OF L
A
TEX CLASS FILES, VOL. 9, NO. 6, JUNE 2011 2
X−axis2D Array Geometry Plot
      Y   −     a     x      i     s
Fig. 1. Geometry of a
×
array of isotropic sources for field analysis.
tot
=
|
0
.
m
=1
n
=1
a
mn
e
j
(
k
(
m
1)
d
x
u
x
+
k
(
n
1)
d
y
u
y
+
α
mn
)
|
(3)with
u
x
=
sinθcosϕ
and
u
y
=
sinθsinϕ
)
Assuming that the current amplitude is
a
mn
=
a
m
×
a
n
andthe phase excitation can be decomposed in progressive partsfor the row and column elements of the array. So
α
mn
can bewritten as
α
mn
=
α
m
+
α
n
(4)As a consequence of expressions 3 and 4, the planar arrayantenna radiation pattern may be written as the product of aelement pattern and two linear array factors like expression(9).
tot
=
0
.AF 
m
.AF 
n
(5)where
AF 
m
and
AF 
n
are the array factor for the linear arrayin the x-direction and the array factor of the linear array inthe y-direction, respectively.
AF 
m
=
m
=1
e
j
(
k
(
m
1)
d
x
sinθcosϕ
+
α
m
)
(6)
AF 
n
=
n
=1
e
j
(
k
(
m
1)
d
y
sinθsinϕ
+
α
n
)
(7)The complex weight
w
mn
can be written as the followingexpression:
w
mn
=
w
m
.w
n
(8)
w
mn
=
a
m
.e
m
.b
n
.e
n
(9)Where
w
m
and
w
n
are the complex weight for the linear arrayin the x-direction and the complex weight for the linear arrayin the y-direction, respectively.In an adaptive algorithm, several methods have been usedto compute amplitude weights
a
mn
such as Hamming,Blackman,Dolph-Tchebychev, Hanning...[27]
 A. Hanning
The coefficients of a Hanning are computed from thefollowing equation:
ω
(
n
) = 0
.
5(1
cos
(2
πn
))
,
0
n
(10)
 B. Hamming
The coefficients of a Hamming window are determined bythe following equation:
ω
(
n
) = 0
.
54
0
.
46
cos
(2
πn
)
,
0
n
(11)
C.Blackman
The equation for computing the Blackman coefficients is :
ω
(
n
) = 0
.
42
0
.
5
cos
(2
πn
) +0
.
08
cos
(4
πn
)
,
0
n
(12)
 D. Dolph-Tchebychev
The Dolph-Chebyshev weights are defined by
ω
(
k
) = (
1)
k
cos
[
Ncos
1
[
βcos
(
πk/N 
)]]
ncosh
[
Ncosh
1
(
β 
)])
,
0
k
1
(13)Where
β 
=
cos
[1
/Ncosh
1
(10
α
)]
The
α
parameter determines the level of the sidelobe attenu-ation.The width of main-lobe
2
ω
c
may be computed as follows:
ω
c
= 2
cos
1
(1
x
0
)
(14)Where
x
0
=
cosh
1
(
1
r
)
1
III. O
PTIMIZATION PROCESS
Our objective is to steer the main beam in the directionof desired signal and to reduce or to suppress interferingsignals from prescribed directions while receiving desired sig-nal from a chosen direction by complex weights (amplitudesand phases) control. The form of optimization problem isexpressed in mathematical terms as:
285http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
JOURNAL OF L
A
TEX CLASS FILES, VOL. 9, NO. 6, JUNE 2011 3
minimise
θ
0
0
(
α
)
subject to
θ
i
j
(
α
) =
δ
ij
with
i
= 1
,...,m
e
j
= 1
,...,n
e
θ
k
l
(
α
)
δ
kl
with
k
=
m
e
+ 1
,...,ml
=
n
e
+ 1
,...,n
2
π
α
mn
2
π
with
m
= 1
,...,M n
= 1
,...,N 
(15)Where
θ,ϕ
(
α
) =
|
m
=1
n
=1
a
mn
e
j
(
k
(
m
1)
d
x
u
x
+
k
(
n
1)
d
y
u
y
+
α
mn
)
|
2
(16)is the matrix of the objective function,
θ
i
j
(17) is thematrix of equality constraints and
θ
k
l
(18) is the matrix of inequality constraints.
θ
i
j
=
θ
1
1
θ
2
1
...
θ
me
1
θ
1
2
θ
2
2
...
θ
me
2
.........
θ
1
ne
θ
2
ne
...
θ
me
ne
(17)
θ
k
l
=
θ
me
+1
ne
+1
θ
me
+2
ne
+1
...
θ
m
ne
+1
θ
me
+1
ne
+2
θ
me
+2
ne
+2
...
θ
m
ne
+2
.........
θ
me
+1
n
θ
me
+2
n
...
θ
m
n
(18)
(
θ
0
,ϕ
0
)
is the direction of the main lobe,
(
m
e
,n
e
)
is theequality constraints matrix size and
(
m
i
,n
i
)
is the inequalityconstraints matrix size. The most widely used algorithmto solve the problem (15) is the Sequential QuadraticProgramming (SQP) [3]-[4]. The basic idea of this methodis based on linearisations of the constraints and a quadraticmodel of the objective function.The quadratic programming problem solved at each iterationof SQP can be defined as
minimise
−
θ
0
0
(
α
kl
)
d
+
12
d
kl
d
subject to
θ
i
j
(
α
kl
)
d
+
θ
i
j
(
α
kl
) =
δ
ij
i
= 1
,...,m
e
 j
= 1
,...,n
e
θ
k
l
(
α
kl
)
d
+
θ
k
l
(
α
kl
)
δ
kl
k
=
m
e
+ 1
,...,ml
=
n
e
+ 1
,...,nd
R
(19)
where
kl
is the BFGS (Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb, andShanno) approximation of the Hessian
2
α
L
(
α
kl
,λ
kl
)
.The lagrangian function
L
is defined as
L
(
α,λ
) =
θ
0
0
(
α
) +
m
k
=1
n
l
=1
λ
kl
(
θ
k
l
(
α
)
δ
kl
)
(20)where
λ
=
λ
1
,
1
, λ
1
,
2
... λ
1
,n
λ
2
,
1
, λ
2
,
2
... λ
2
,n
.........
λ
m,
1
, λ
m,
2
... λ
m,n
(21)is the matrix of the Lagrange multiplier. The solution to theQP sub-problem, described on equation (20) produces a searchdirection vector
d
k
, which is used to form a new iterate
α
k
+1
.
α
k
+1
=
α
k
+
µ
 p
d
k
(22)where,
µ
 p
]0
,
1]
is a suitable step length parameter.IV. S
IMULATIONS AND
R
ESULTS
To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed of thesespresented techniques, we consider three planar array antennasof sizes
12
×
12
,
16
×
16
and
20
×
20
isotropic elements withequi-spaced inter-element is half wavelength.
Fig. 2. Three dimensional planar antenna array Pattern with main beamimposed at
(
ϕ
= 50
,θ
= 50
)
.
For these three examples, a sequential quadraticprogramming SQP has been used to optimize the phaseexcitation of the planar array antenna in order to point themain beam in the desired direction, and Tchebychev methodhas been used to optimize the amplitude excitation of planararray antenna in order to achieve a minimum peak sidelobelevel with narrower beam width. The results obtained byTchebychev method were compared with Hanning, Blackmanand Hamming methods.Figure 2 shows a 3-D surface plot of the radiation patternof the planar array antenna with a main beam imposed at
(
ϕ
= 50
,θ
= 50
)
synthesized by SQP and Tchebychevmethod silde lobe levels SSL is
50
dB
.
286http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->