JOURNAL OF L
A
TEX CLASS FILES, VOL. 9, NO. 6, JUNE 2011 1
Side Lobe Reduction of a planar array antenna bycomplex weight control using SQP algorithm andTchebychev method
A. Hammami,R. Ghayoula,and A. GharsallahUnit´e de recherche : Circuits et systmes´electroniques HFFacult´e des Sciences de Tunis,Campus Universitaire Tunis ELmanar, 2092,TunisieEmail: hammami.a.fst@gmail.com
Abstract
—In this paper, we propose an efﬁcient hybrid methodbased on the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithmand DolphTchebychev for the pattern synthesis of planar antenna arrays with prescribed pattern nulls in the interferencedirection and minimum side lobe levels SLL by controlling onlythe phase of each array element. The SQP algorithm is themost widely used to solve nonlinear optimization problems. Itconsists of transforming the nonlinear problem to sequence of quadratic subproblems by using a quadratic approximation of the lagrangian function. In order to illustrate the performanceof the proposed method, several examples of complex excitedplanar array patterns with onehalf wavelength spaced isotropicelements to place the main beam in the direction of the usefulsignal while reduce the side lobe level were investigated.
Index Terms
—Planar antenna arrays, Synthesis method, nullsteering, sequential quadratic programming
I. I
NTRODUCTION
A
RRAYS antennas are used to steer radiated power towards a desired angular sector and to suppress or toreduce side lobe level. The choice of the array antenna parameters such us number elements, geometrical arrangement, andamplitudes and phases excitation depend on the angular patternthat must be achieved. A linear array allows beam steering inone dimension. however, a planar array has two dimensions of control, permitting a narrow pencil beam to be produced andthe control of the shape in both directions. Several antennaarray pattern synthesis antenna have been developed to steerthe main beam at the desired direction and to reduce the sidelobe level [1][17].Although the large number of elements in planar arrays,which translates into Although the large number of unknownparameters for the optimization algorithms,Some of theseworks are interested in planar array antennas pattern synthesis.In the few years, various techniques has been used to synthesisa planar array antenna radion pattern. For the arbitrarily shapedcoverages, the synthesis pattern techniques can be classiﬁedinto categories [17]. Mathematical optimization deterministictechniques are based on local gradient optimization methodologies such as Newton type algorithm, sequential quadraticprogramming (SQP)[2] algorithm... Mathematical optimization stochastic techniques are global optimization methodologies like genetic algorithm [17][23], Differential evolutionalgorithm [11], particle swarm optimization algorithm [19] .In this study, we propose a synthesis method for an uniformplanar array antennas based on SQP and Tchebychev algorithms by controlling both the amplitude and phase (complexweights control).The paper is organized as follows; theoretical description ispresented in section II. Section III shows the optimizationprocess. Section VI shows simulations and results and ﬁnally,section VI makes conclusions.II. T
HEORETICAL DESCRIPTION
Consider a planar array composed by
M
×
N
equispacedisotropic antenna elements arranged in a regular rectangulararray in the xy plane, with interelements spacing
d
=
d
x
=
d
y
=
λ/
2
as shown in ﬁgure 2.The planar array antenna can be seen as a linear array of linear arrays. The total ﬁeld of a
M
×
N
elements is themultiplication of the element radiation
E
0
in the coordinatesby the the sum of the normalized excitations currents on thearray elements [15][16].The perturbed array pattern can be written as
E
tot
=

E
0
.
M
m
=1
N
n
=1
a
mn
e
j
(
ψ
mn
+
α
mn
)

(1)with
a
mn
is the amplitude of the excitation of the element
(
m,n
)
,
α
mn
represents the phase excitation of the element
(
m,n
)
,Moreover,
ψ
mn
is the phase of element
(
m,n
)
relativeto the
(1
,
1)
element.
ψ
mn
is then given by
ψ
kl
=
k
(
m
−
1)
d
x
sinθcosϕ
+
k
(
n
−
1)
d
y
sinθsinϕ
)
(2)with
d
x
and
d
y
are interelement distance along the xaxisand interelement distance along the yaxis respectively.The planar array radiation pattern a becomes
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