Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Image Compression Algorithm- A Review

Image Compression Algorithm- A Review

Ratings: (0)|Views: 42 |Likes:
Published by ijcsis
Existing Video Indexing Models are analyzed and a practical approach to the optimal Video Indexing
is introduced. It is studied under all the phases of video indexing processes like segmentation, indexing, database
storage, query based access, browsing and video clip retrieval, etc… The main aim is to easily parse the video stream into meaningful scenes, maintain them in an effective database with minimal data repetitions, efficient query handling and user friendly browsing capabilities. Conceptual Graph, Motion Estimation, Mean Absolute Frame Difference, Displaced Frame Difference, Dublin Core and other important existing techniques are utilized in this model. The main aim is to reduce the memory storage of video clippings without visible loss in quality by using a predictive video compression technique. Today almost all video clippings face a compromise between their quality and memory size. Even Video clippings are not advised to include in the web pages because of their downloading time and its memory size. To try to rectify it and to take positive measures to convert a video clipping file similar to *.swf (flashplayer’s shockwave files) is the aim of this presentation.
Existing Video Indexing Models are analyzed and a practical approach to the optimal Video Indexing
is introduced. It is studied under all the phases of video indexing processes like segmentation, indexing, database
storage, query based access, browsing and video clip retrieval, etc… The main aim is to easily parse the video stream into meaningful scenes, maintain them in an effective database with minimal data repetitions, efficient query handling and user friendly browsing capabilities. Conceptual Graph, Motion Estimation, Mean Absolute Frame Difference, Displaced Frame Difference, Dublin Core and other important existing techniques are utilized in this model. The main aim is to reduce the memory storage of video clippings without visible loss in quality by using a predictive video compression technique. Today almost all video clippings face a compromise between their quality and memory size. Even Video clippings are not advised to include in the web pages because of their downloading time and its memory size. To try to rectify it and to take positive measures to convert a video clipping file similar to *.swf (flashplayer’s shockwave files) is the aim of this presentation.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Jul 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/21/2013

pdf

text

original

 
IMAGE COMPRESSION
 
ALGORITHM- A
 
REVIEW
 Marcus karnan
1
and M.S.Tamilselvi
2
 1Tamilnadu College of EngineeringCoimbatore, Indiadrmkarnan@gmail.com
 
2Research Scholar, Dept of Computer Science&Engg.ANNA UniversityCoimbatore, Indiamstmst2009@gmail.com
Abstract: Existing Video Indexing
 
Models are analyzed and a practical
 
approach to the optimal Video Indexing
 
is introduced. It is studied under all the
 
 phases of video indexing processes like
 
segmentation, indexing, database
 
storage, query based access, browsing
 
and video clip retrieval, etc… The main
 
aim is to easily parse the video stream
 
into meaningful scenes, maintain them in
 
an effective database with minimal data
 
repetitions, efficient query handling and
 
user friendly browsing capabilities.
 
Conceptual Graph, Motion Estimation,
 
Mean Absolute Frame Difference,
 
Displaced Frame Difference, Dublin
 
Core and other important existing
 
techniques are utilized in this model. The
 
main aim is to reduce the memory
 
storage of video clippings without visible
 
loss in quality by using a predictive
 
video compression technique. Today
 
almost all video clippings face a
 
compromise between their quality and
 
memory size. Even Video clippings are
 
not advised to include in the web pages
 
 because of their downloading time andits memory size. To try to rectify it andto take positive measures to convert avideo clipping file similar to *.swf (flashplayer’s shockwave files) is theaim of this presentation.
 
Keywords :
:Coding, Block Materials, Inter 
 
Frame Compress Technique, Subsampling, Difference Coding
 
1. INTRODUCTION
 
Requirements For Any CompressionAlgorithm
 
Any compression algorithmshould satisfy the following requirementsto standardize the compression-uncompression procedure:
 
It
 
should
 
have
 
a
 
high
 
compressionrate at the same time maintain agood enough quality so thatuncompressed file is not so muchdifferent from the original file andcontains almost all of theimportant information
 
The
 
technique
 
of 
 
compressionshould be simple, in fact the leastcomplex technique is preferred
 
The
 
delay
 
introduced
 
incompression should be very small
 
Based
 
on
 
applicationrequirements, there are two kindsof codecs - symmetric andasymmetric.
 
Symmetricalgorithms take the same amountof time to compress anduncompress files,
 
whileasymmetric codecs spend moretime in one of the above
 
290http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 processes. Asymmetric codecs areusually preferred, because thegeneral user would like tocompress the file once, and thenuncompress it whenever needed,so that we need thedecompression time to be smallwhile the compression time can be allowed to be big because weare only going to compress thefile once. This mode of the codecis called the retrieval mode, and itis usually expected to have thefollowing properties:
 
FFWD, REW should be possible with simultaneousdisplay of the movieRandom access with speedsshould be less than 0.5 s
 
The format should beindependent of frame sizeand frame rate, and shouldsupport several rates - thismeans that users who aretrying to stream movie previews, for example,should be able to choose between slow and high bandwidth connections, sothat the website can provide to both slow andfast connections The audioand video tracks should be insync. Nowadays there are programs which can fix
 
audio-video sync, and areeasily available over theinternet.
 
Compression in Digital Video
 
A great deal of research has goneinto image and video compression andindeed it is quite difficult to inventsomething new in this field. Let us haveassumption that the input is always aPCM digitised signal in colour components. The output of thecompression process is a bitstream. Letsconsider each technique briefly :
 
Figure 1.1 . Compression inDigital Video
 
2
 
Compression
 
General
 
Techniques
 
There are many popular general purpose
 
lossless compression techniques, that can
 
 be applied to any type of data.
 
o
 
o
 
o
 
o
 
 
RECENT WORKS
 
Purpose
 
291http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Run Length Encoding
 
Run Length Encoding is acompression technique that replacesconsecutive occurrences of a symbolwith the symbol followed by the number of times it is repeated. For example, thestring 111110000003355 could berepresented by 15063252. Clearly thiscompression technique is most usefulwhere symbols appear in long runs, andthus can sometimes be useful for imagesthat have areas where the pixels all havethe same value,cartoonsforexample.Relative Encoding
 
Relative encoding is atransmission technique that attempts toimprove efficiency by transmitting thedifference between each value and its predecessor, in place of the value itself.Thus the values 15106433003 would betransmitted as 1+4-4-1+6-2-1+0-3+0+3.In effect the transmitter is predicting thateach value is the same as its predecessor and the data transmitted is the difference between the predicted and actual values.Differential Pulse Code Modulation(DPCM) is an example of relativeencoding.
 
Huffman Coding
 
Huffman coding is a popular compression technique that assignsvariable length codes (VLC) to symbols,so that the most frequently occurringsymbols have the shortest codes[
Huff52].
On decompression the symbols
 
are reassigned their original fixed lengthcodes. When used to compress text, for example, variable length codes are usedin place of ASCII codes, and the mostcommon characters, usually space, e, andt are assigned the shortest codes. In thisway the total number of bits required totransmit the data can be considerably lessthan the number required if the fixedlength representation is used. Huffmancoding is particularly effective where thedata are dominated by a small number of symbols.
 
Arithmetic Coding
 
Although Huffman coding is veryefficient, it is only optimal when thesymbol probabilities are integral powersof two. Arithmetic coding [Witt87] doesnot have this restriction and is usuallymore efficient than the more popular Huffman technique. Although moreefficient than Huffman coding,arithmetic coding is more complex.
 
Lempel-Ziv Coding
 
Lempel-Ziv compressors use adictionary of symbol sequences. Whenan occurrence of the sequence is repeatedit is replaced by a reference to its position in the dictionary. There areseveral variations of this codingtechnique and they differ primarily in themanner in which they manage thedictionary. The most well known of these techniques is the Lempel-Ziv-Welch variation.
 
292http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->