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Compensation of Nonlinear Distortion in OFDM Systems Using an Efficient Evaluation Technique

Compensation of Nonlinear Distortion in OFDM Systems Using an Efficient Evaluation Technique

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Published by ijcsis
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signal with larger peak to average power ratio (PAPR) will cause the undesirable spectrum re-growth and performance degradation in bit error rate (BER), both due to the intermodulation products occurring in the nonlinear amplifier at the transmitter. This paper proposes a new approach to compensate the nonlinearity introduced by the HPA. By approximating the attenuation coefficient of HPA model, the distortion is estimated, and then it is subtracted from the received symbol at the receiver. By performing several iterations, the estimation of the distortion becomes more accurate, and cancels the nonlinear distortion. Simulation results show that the presented scheme is more efficient to compensate the nonlinear distortion in OFDM systems.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signal with larger peak to average power ratio (PAPR) will cause the undesirable spectrum re-growth and performance degradation in bit error rate (BER), both due to the intermodulation products occurring in the nonlinear amplifier at the transmitter. This paper proposes a new approach to compensate the nonlinearity introduced by the HPA. By approximating the attenuation coefficient of HPA model, the distortion is estimated, and then it is subtracted from the received symbol at the receiver. By performing several iterations, the estimation of the distortion becomes more accurate, and cancels the nonlinear distortion. Simulation results show that the presented scheme is more efficient to compensate the nonlinear distortion in OFDM systems.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jul 07, 2011
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01/22/2012

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
 
Compensation of Nonlinear Distortion in OFDMSystems Using an Efficient Evaluation Technique
Dr. (Mrs.).R.Sukanesh
,
 
Professor, Department of ECE,Thiagarajar College of Engineering,Madurai - 15, India.R.Sundaraguru
,
 Research Scholar, Department of ICE,Anna University Chennai,Chennai-25, India. 
 Abstract—
 
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)signal with larger peak to average power ratio (PAPR) will causethe undesirable spectrum re-growth and performancedegradation in bit error rate (BER), both due to the inter-modulation products occurring in the nonlinear amplifier at thetransmitter. This paper proposes a new approach to compensatethe nonlinearity introduced by the HPA. By approximating theattenuation coefficient of HPA model, the distortion is estimated,and then it is subtracted from the received symbol at the receiver.By performing several iterations, the estimation of the distortionbecomes more accurate, and cancels the nonlinear distortion.
 
Simulation results show that the presented scheme is moreefficient to compensate the nonlinear distortion in OFDMsystems.
 Keywords— Orthogonal Frequency division Multiplexing (OFDM), Nonlinear Distortion (NLD), High Power Amplifier (HPA), Bit Error Rate (BER), Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR).
I.
 
INTRODUCTIONOFDM has attracted considerable interest amongcommunication system designers because of its high spectrumefficiency and robustness to severe multipath fading and it iswidely used in high speed digital communications such asdigital video broadcasting (DVB), digital audio broadcasting(DAB), digital subscriber line (DSL) and digital HDTV broadcasting systems [1], [2], [3]. However, due to the largedynamic range of the modulated signal, OFDM is verysensitive to nonlinear distortions both in the high power amplifier (HPA) stages of the transmitter and in the channel.The nonlinearity causes (i) spectral-spreading of the OFDMsignal and (ii) intermodulation between subcarriers whichseriously degrade the system performance. To overcome thelinearization challenges at the transmitter, several digital predistortion schemes have been proposed [4], [5]. The basicidea behind these techniques relies on modeling thenonlinearity in HPA and its inverse function first and then passing the transmitted signal (before HPA) through theinverse nonlinearity (pre-distorter). However, in order toimplement the adaptive predistortion technique in OFDMsystems, a large amount of RAM is required, whose contentsare updated with low convergence speeds. One recent solutionof this problem is decision-added compensation method proposed in [6], which compensates the nonlinearity at thereceiver, but the channel response isn’t accurate. Thealgorithm proposed in [7] can mitigate the nonlinear distortionand gives better BER performance with the assumption of attenuation coefficient is equal to 1, which is not trueaccording to Bussgang’s theorem. In this paper a new adaptivemethod is proposed, in which the BER performance improvedwith moderate complexity in the system.The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. InSection II, the OFDM transmission system model withnonlinearity is discussed. The proposed compensationtechnique is introduced in Section III. Section IV presents thesimulation results. Conclusions are drawn in section V.II.
 
OFDM SYSTEM MODEL
Fig.1 Baseband equivalent OFDM system
Fig.1 shows the baseband-equivalent functional block diagram of the OFDM transmission system. The QAM signalgenerator produces complex symbols with independent,identically distributed random in-phase and quadraturecomponents from the finite alphabet set. The serial-to-parallel block converts the QAM input data stream into a block of 
 N 
symbols, which in turn modulate the corresponding subcarrier.The Nyquist rate sampled OFDM signal is described as,
 , N 
 ,N  , ,n  N 
π 
kn j N n
 ,e s
110210
1
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =
=
L
(1)According to the central limit theorem if the number of subcarriers is large, the signal can be approximated as aGaussian distributed random variable. Using Bussgang’s
296http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
 theorem the signal at the output of nonlinearity can be writtenas the sum of an attenuated input replica and an uncorrelateddistortion term [8], [9].
nn
α
 sn s
+=
~(2)where
n
is the distortion term, and ‘
α
’ is the attenuationcoefficient, which is described as,
=
2~
nnn
 s E  s s E 
α
(3)The transmitter and receiver shaping filters have the frequencyresponse
G
 
and
G
respectively,
( ) ( ) ( )
,
 f G f G f G
==
(4)where
G(f)
denotes a raised-cosine Nyquist pulse. Thespectrally shaped signal at the output of the transmit filter isfed through the HPA and the channel. The auto-correlationfunction of the output signal can be written as,
dd  R ss R
α
 s s R
+=
2~~(5)Equation (5) can be used to derive the power of distortion for different subcarriers. At the receiver, the output of the FFT block gives a set of decision variables.
 D
+=
α 
~(6)
 N kn j N nn
e s
 N 
π  
210
1
=
=
(7)
 N 
π 
kn j N nn
e
 N  D
210
1
=
=
(8)
( ) ( )
nnhnnhn
α
 sn
++=
~(9)where
h(n)
is the channel response assumed to be perfectlyknown, and
n
is the channel noise. Therefore the equivalentlinear model of the OFDM transmission with nonlinearityconsists of a complex gain ‘
α
’, and an uncorrelated additiveGaussian distortion [10], [11]. The performance of this systemis evaluated in the same way as an AWGN channel.III.
 
PROPOSED MODELFig. 2 shows the block diagram of a proposed compensationtechnique. The receiver works in an iterative fashion that theattenuation coefficient ‘
α
’ of transmitting HPA model isestimated using the training sequence, which gives theimitation of nonlinear distortion components, at last use thereplica to cancel the nonlinear distortion components in thereceived symbols.
Fig.2 Proposed Model to Compensate Nonlinear Distortion
Based on the proposed system the nonlinear signal can beexpressed as the sum of the attenuated linear signal
α
 s
n
and thenonlinear distortion
n.
nnn
α
 s s
=
~(10)The estimated nonlinear distortion term
n
is subtractedfrom the current channel observation to obtain the refinedchannel signal. By taking the advantage of training sequence,it is possible to get more accurate channel response. So theoutput after nonlinear compensation is represented as,
( )
nh s
nnn
=
(11)Finally the proposed adaptive algorithm will be moreeffective and compensate the nonlinear distortion.
 
IV.
 
SIMULATION RESULTSOnly AWGN is assumed to be present in the channel.The numbers of IFFT and sub-carriers points are 1024 and 512respectively. A widely accepted HPA model is a nonlinear memoryless model, in which transformation carried betweenthe complex envelope of the input and output signals [11],[12]. It can be defined as
 f[ 
 ρ
 ]
=
 A[ 
 ρ
 ] ·e
 j
Φ
 ρ
 ]
, where the function
 A [·]
and
Φ
[·]
represents the AM/AM and AM/PMconversions, respectively. Two nonlinear HPA models have been adopted for simulation. A travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) with strong AM/AM and AM/PM conversions, aregiven by [12],
297http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
 
[ ]
2
 Α
2
 ρ ρ
2
 Α ρ Α
 sat  sat 
+=
(12)
[ ]
2 sat  A2
 ρ
2
 ρ
3
π  ρΦ
+=
(13)and for solid state power amplifier (SSPA)
[ ]
( )
[ ]
,2121
 ρ ρ
o A
 ρ ρ ρ
 A
+=
(14)
[ ]
0
=
 ρΦ
(15)where
 A
 sat 
is the input saturation voltage,
 A
o
is the outputsaturation voltage, and ‘
ρ
’ is the parameter that controls thesmoothness of the transition from linear region to saturationregion. In the case of TWTA,
 A
o
=
 A
 sat 
/ 2 and for SSPA,
 A
o
=
 A
 sat 
/
2
.The effect of the nonlinear amplifier depends on theoperating point, which is the average power of the inputsignals. Input backoff (IBO) and output backoff (OBO) [8] aretwo common parameters to verify the nonlinear distortion.
in P  s A IBO
2log10
=
(16)
out  P o A IBO
2log10
=
(17)where
2
 s
 A
 
is the input power at the saturation point,
 P 
in
is theaverage input power,
2
o
 A
is the maximum output power, and
 P 
out 
is the average output power.
Fig.3 BER versus SNR for 16QAM when IBO=1dB
Fig.3 shows the BER performance under the ideal AWGNchannel without SSPA. With SSPA, the performance of theSNR is improved about 5 dB compared with algorithm in [7].
 
Fig. 4 BER versus SNR for 16QAM when IBO=8dB
Fig. 4 shows the BER performance under the ideal AWGNchannel without TWTA. With TWTA, the SNR performanceis improved more than 6 dB compared with algorithm in [7].
Fig. 5 BER versus IBO for 16QAM when SNR =20dB
In Fig. 5, it is observed that the IBO of the compensatedsignals with SSPA can be improved more than 1 dB comparedwith the algorithm proposed in [7].
Fig. 6 BER versus IBO for 16QAM when SNR =25dB
Fig.6 shows the IBO of the compensated signals withTWTA can be improved about 2 dB compared with algorithm proposed in [7].
298http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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