(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011
theorem the signal at the output of nonlinearity can be writtenas the sum of an attenuated input replica and an uncorrelateddistortion term , .
is the distortion term, and ‘
’ is the attenuationcoefficient, which is described as,
s E s s E
(3)The transmitter and receiver shaping filters have the frequencyresponse
( ) ( ) ( )
f G f r G f t G
denotes a raised-cosine Nyquist pulse. Thespectrally shaped signal at the output of the transmit filter isfed through the HPA and the channel. The auto-correlationfunction of the output signal can be written as,
dd R ss R
s s R
2~~(5)Equation (5) can be used to derive the power of distortion for different subcarriers. At the receiver, the output of the FFT block gives a set of decision variables.
k Dk S k S
N kn j N nnk
kn j N nnk
( ) ( )
k nnhnd nhn
is the channel response assumed to be perfectlyknown, and
is the channel noise. Therefore the equivalentlinear model of the OFDM transmission with nonlinearityconsists of a complex gain ‘
’, and an uncorrelated additiveGaussian distortion , . The performance of this systemis evaluated in the same way as an AWGN channel.III.
PROPOSED MODELFig. 2 shows the block diagram of a proposed compensationtechnique. The receiver works in an iterative fashion that theattenuation coefficient ‘
’ of transmitting HPA model isestimated using the training sequence, which gives theimitation of nonlinear distortion components, at last use thereplica to cancel the nonlinear distortion components in thereceived symbols.
Fig.2 Proposed Model to Compensate Nonlinear Distortion
Based on the proposed system the nonlinear signal can beexpressed as the sum of the attenuated linear signal
and thenonlinear distortion
~(10)The estimated nonlinear distortion term
is subtractedfrom the current channel observation to obtain the refinedchannel signal. By taking the advantage of training sequence,it is possible to get more accurate channel response. So theoutput after nonlinear compensation is represented as,
nhd r s
(11)Finally the proposed adaptive algorithm will be moreeffective and compensate the nonlinear distortion.
SIMULATION RESULTSOnly AWGN is assumed to be present in the channel.The numbers of IFFT and sub-carriers points are 1024 and 512respectively. A widely accepted HPA model is a nonlinear memoryless model, in which transformation carried betweenthe complex envelope of the input and output signals ,. It can be defined as
, where the function
represents the AM/AM and AM/PMconversions, respectively. Two nonlinear HPA models have been adopted for simulation. A travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) with strong AM/AM and AM/PM conversions, aregiven by ,