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Diagnosis of Skin Diseases using Online Expert System

Diagnosis of Skin Diseases using Online Expert System

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Published by ijcsis
This paper describes Expert System (ES) for diagnosis and management of skin diseases. More than
13 types of skin diseases can be diagnosed and treated by our system. It is rule based web-supported expert system, assisting skin specialists, medical students doing specialization in dermatology, researchers as well as skin patients having computer know-how. System was developed with Java Technology. The expert rules were developed on the symptoms of each type of skin disease, and they were presented using tree-graph and inferred using forward-chaining with depth-first search method. User interaction with system is enhanced with efficient user interfaces. The web based expert system described in this paper can detect and give early diagnosis of thirteen plus skin diseases. This ES can be extended to diagnose all types of skin-diseases.
This paper describes Expert System (ES) for diagnosis and management of skin diseases. More than
13 types of skin diseases can be diagnosed and treated by our system. It is rule based web-supported expert system, assisting skin specialists, medical students doing specialization in dermatology, researchers as well as skin patients having computer know-how. System was developed with Java Technology. The expert rules were developed on the symptoms of each type of skin disease, and they were presented using tree-graph and inferred using forward-chaining with depth-first search method. User interaction with system is enhanced with efficient user interfaces. The web based expert system described in this paper can detect and give early diagnosis of thirteen plus skin diseases. This ES can be extended to diagnose all types of skin-diseases.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jul 07, 2011
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06/25/2013

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Diagnosis of Skin Diseases using Online ExpertSystem
Muhammad Zubair Asghar
1
, Muhammad Junaid Asghar
2
, Sheikh Muhammad Saqib
1
, Bashir Ahmad
1
, ShakeelAhmad
1
and Hussain Ahmad
1
.
1
Institute of Computing and Information Technology Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan
 Abstract-
-
This paper describes Expert System (ES) fordiagnosis and management of skin diseases. More than13 types of skin diseases can be diagnosed and treatedby our system. It is rule based web-supported expertsystem, assisting skin specialists, medical students doingspecialization in dermatology, researchers as well asskin patients having computer know-how. System wasdeveloped with Java Technology. The expert rules weredeveloped on the symptoms of each type of skin disease,and they were presented using tree-graph and inferredusing forward-chaining with depth-first search method.User interaction with system is enhanced with effcientuser interfaces. The web based expert system describedin this paper can detect and give early diagnosis of thirteen plus skin diseases. This ES can be extended todiagnose all types of skin-diseases.
Keywords: Expert System, Skin Disease, Diagnose, Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge, Database.
1.
 
INTRODUCTIONThis is web-based expert system called WES(Web based Expert System) for Diagnoses of skindiseases infecting Pakistani population specially inflood effected areas. It contains an extendedknowledge base as well as more up-to-date inferencemechanism.The present work describes followingimprovements over the other similar expert systems inthe field.All previous skin ES are non-internet and non-GUI based systems. The present work is developmentof web based system having easy to use GUI for theuser interaction.Some of the earlier expert systems have grown uponly at the prototype stage. There was obviouspotential for more practical nature skin based ES inophthalmology and WES has been developed toachieve that.iii) Previous systems were able to deal withfewer skin diseases; resultantly Backward chaining of rules was used. No. of skin diseases that our systemcan diagnose (13) are more thanearlier systems, so we did use forward chainingwith depth first search method.The most important characteristic of this system isthat it doesn’t need to have the answers to every inputquestion in order to reach a conclusion. The systemwill not ask the same question twice, For example,there are multiple skin diseases that contain one/morecommon symptoms, so the responses given earlierwill automatically be applied to new diagnoses.An expert system is an Artificial Intelligencebased computer program, which acts like a humanexpert in particular area of knowledge. It has threemain components i.e. a knowledge base (KB), aninference engine (IE) and control strategy (CS) [2].Knowledge structured in the form of IF-THEN rulesis stored in KB. This knowledge is processed byinference engine under supervision of control strategyfor achieving expert advice. A Web Based ExpertSystem(WES) is a collection of computer softwareand hardware components that have been properlyselected, designed, developed, combined andconfigured in order to deliver a service that emulatesin an effective and reliable manner the reasoningprocess of domain experts over the Web[3].2.
 
OBJECTIVES
 
OF
 
CURRENT
 
RESEARCHThe need for web based decision support andexpert systems has been felt world wide as they arecapable to provide comprehensive and up-to-dateinformation and consultation in interactive and userfriendly manner. Web based system has beendeveloped to fulfill the following objectives:-To develop an ES that may provide freeconsultation about skin diseases.-To assist skin specialists for diagnosing variousdiseases associated with skin .-All health care professionals including, skinspecialists, medical students, pharmacists can keeptheir knowledge up-to-date regarding “skin diseasesdiagnoses and treatment”, as its knowledge baseexternal database is updated on regular basis.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011323http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
3.
 
METHODOLOGYPhases/steps carried out in developing WES doinclude: 1.Problem definition/Scope identification. 2.Knowledge acquisition. 3. Knowledge representation.4. Coding. 5. Testing and implementation.
3.1 Problem Definition/Scope Identification.
An expert system needs precise domain. Thedomain must be well organized and well understood.In diagnosis domain, as number of disorders(diseases) increase linearly, the number of possiblediagnoses increase exponentially (i.e. there are morecombinations of diagnoses to consider). This type of growth in the total no. of solutions is calledcombinatorial explosion[10]. Clearly, Skin Disordersdiagnoses are an appropriate domain for expert systemdevelopment. This WES has a narrow domain of skindiseases[5]. Following list shows some sample skindiseases which can be diagnosed by our system.I.
 
Facial RashesII.
 
WhiteheadsIII.
 
Enlarged PoresIV.
 
Dark CirclesV.
 
ErythrodermaVI.
 
Tinea BarbaeVII.
 
Bullous pemphigoidVIII.
 
Acne -> Acne vulgaris, Acne Scars, AcneTreatment, Back Acne, Baby Acne, AcneMyths, Adult Acne, Acne Control, TeaTree oil for AcneIX.
 
MastocytosisX.
 
ComedoXI.
 
OnychomycosisXII.
 
Skin AbscessXIII.
 
Acanthosis nigricans
3.2 Knowledge Acquisition
Knowledge Acquisition includes three activities:choosing what knowledge is needed; obtaining andinterpreting the knowledge; and modeling theknowledge. Some commonly used approaches aredirect interviews, observations Ishikawa diagrams,case studies [7]. Direct interviews and observationswere used for KA. The KA for this system consistedof several interviews with skin specialists, makingobservations and getting historical data from variousskin clinics, depts. and wards in DHQ teachinghospitals of Pakistan , free skin caring camps and skinlabs of medical college. Knowledge acquisitionprocess will last for three months.
3.3 Knowledge Representation
There are numerous approaches for knowledgerepresentation depending on nature of problemdomain. As this is a rule based system, so IF-THENstyle rules are used because they are easy tounderstand and enhance. The rule has twocomponents: IF<situation THEN<suggestion> TheIF-part (antecedent/left hand side) suggests describesa situation under which the rule is applicable. TheTHEN part (consequent/right hand side) suggests anaction to be performed under the situation ( for actionrules) or a plausible inference to make under thesituation( for inference rules)[7].
3.4 Testing and implementation
System will be tested to ensure that it providesgood quality decisions. Reasoning technique is testedfor correctness i.e. whether it attains the desiredaccuracy rate. During testing omitted rules, incorrectrules, overlooked special cases are checked.Association of rules and missing relationships are alsochecked. Thorough testing verifies that all paths in theknowledge base are covered. ES was tested by twoskin Specialists. The prototyping approach will beused to implement WES. A small domain of theknowledge acquired will be implemented in JESS andpresented to the skin specialist. They will test theprototype using different scenarios. Theirrecommendations, additions, deletions or changesfrom the conclusions given by WES. Once the skinspecialists agreed with the recommendations given bythe ES, new prototype with more knowledge will bedeveloped and presented again to experts for testing.The procedure will continue until all the acquiredknowledge was included in WES knowledge base.WES is planned to be launched on the web usingApache server. Working Model of our expert systemis given as under in Figure 1.
 
Figure 1. Working Model of our Expert System
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011324http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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