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Nclex Notes 1

Nclex Notes 1

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Published by itokumo
nclex, notes, itokumo
nclex, notes, itokumo

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Published by: itokumo on Jul 07, 2011
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04/28/2014

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Nclex notes 1
1. Co2 causes vasoconstriction.
 
2.Multiple sclerosis= myelin sheat destruction, disruption in nerve impulse conduction.3.TIA (transient ischemic attack) mini stroke with no dead brain tissue4.Hodgkin’s disease= cancer of lymph is very curable in early stage5.if HR is <100 do not give dig to children6.heart defects. Remember for cyanotic -3T’s( Tof, Truncysarteriosus,Transposition of the greatvessels). Prevent blood from going to heart. If problem does not fix or cannot be corrected surgically, CHFwill occur following by death.7.with R side cardiac cath=look for valve problems;with L side in adults look for coronary complications8.Wilm’s tumor is usually encapsulated above the kidneys causing flank pain9.when phenylalanine increases, brain problems occur 10.placenta should be in upper part of uterus11.eclampsia is seizure12. caput succedaneum= diffuse edema of the fetal scalp that crossesthesuture lines. Swellingreabsorbswithin 1 to 3 days13.placenta previa = there is no pain, there is bleeding. Placenta abruption = pain, but no bleeding14.bethamethasone (celestone)=surfactant. Med for lung expansion15. milieu therapy= taking care of patient/environment; cognitive therapy= counseling; crisisintervention=short term16.if patients have hallucinations redirect them. In delusions distract them17.Teres Minor, Infraspinatus, Supraspinatus, and Subscapularis make up the Rotator Cuff 18.Prazosin (Minipress) -alpha-adrenergic blocking agent; antihypertensive agent.-watch our for First-dosehypotensive reaction”19.Pregnancy-induced hypertension is the most common hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. It ischaracterized bythe development of hypertension, proteinuria, and edema. Glycosuria and ketonuria occur in diabetesmellitus.20.Primary atypical pneumonia (Mycoplasma pneumonia) is characterized as: occurs primarily in the fall andwinter months.The causative organism is M. pneumoniae.People at highest risk for mycoplasma pneumoniainclude those living or working in crowded areas such as schools and homeless shelters21.EPOGEN - epoetin alfa recombinant, Erytrhopoietin, human recombinantClassification1). normally synthesized in the kidney and stimulates RBC production2). will elevate and maintain RBC level, decreasing the need for BTUses:Treatment of anemia associated with Chronic Renal Failure in adultsC/I: uncontrolled hypertensionSide effects: CV - hypertension, CNS - pyrexia(fever)Complication: PolycythemiaWhat to monitor before and after: BP. TEMP & HEMATOCRIT water.22.An
intussusception
is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine has invaginated into another section of intestine. s/s:jelly like or currant like stool.23.Buck’s extension traction is used for decreasing painful muscle spasms that accompany fractures24.Cascara sagrada:laxative. Common s/e: nausea and abdominal cramps25. Skin graft:Heterograft is skin from another species. Homograft is skin from another human.Autograft isskin from the client
Nclex notes 2
1. Dehydration, sign of improvement: decreased urine specific gravity and decreased hematocrit
 
a. Diabetes: increased urine volume, increased SG (High amount of glucose in urine)b. Hypertension: normal volume, decreased SGc. Early chronic renal disease: increased volume, decreased SG2.Esophageal atresia: esophagus does not develop properly. s/s: infant drools continuously, lack of stoolsresults.
 
3. Digoxin toxicity s/s: N/V, diarrhea, abd pain, vision change4.Urine discoloration:Adriamycyn------ ReddishRifabutin--------- Red orangeRifampicin------- Red orangeBactrim---------- Red orangeRobaxin--------- Brown, Black or GreenishAzulfidine------ Orange yellowFlagyl------------ BrownishDilantin---------- Pink tingedAnti Psychotic-- Pinkish to Red brown [Trifluoperazine] (Stelazine)
 
5.S/S of hypoxia in infant: feeding difficulty, inspiratory stridor, nares flare, expiratory grunting, sternalretractions
 
6.Cushing's dyndrome: tx- lifelong adm. of glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor(
Mitotane
, or 
o,p'-DDD
, is amedication used in the treatment of the rare disease adrencortical carcinoma)Inform that there will be poor wound healing7. Anaphylactic reactioncaused by infusion of IgA proteins to IgA-deficient recipient who has developed anti-IgA-antibodies.S/S:Anxiety, urticaria, wheezing progressing to cyanosis, shock, and possible cardiac arrest8. Acute hemolyticcaused by infusion of ABO-incompatible red blood cells.S/S: Chills, fever, low back pain, flushing, tachycardia, hemoglobinuria, hypotension, vascular collapse,bleeding, acute renal failure, shock, cardiac arrest, death.
 
9.
Hirschsprung's disease
, or 
congenital aganglionic megacolon
, involves an
enlargement
of the colon,caused by bowel obstruction resulting from an aganglionic section of bowel (the normal enteric nerves areabsent) that starts at the anus and progresses upwards.DX: Rectal biopsy looking for absence of ganglioniccells .Cardinal sign in infants is failure to pass meconium, and later the classic ribbon-like and foul smelling stools10. Anastrozole (Arimidex) is prescribed for a postmenopausal client with breastcancer. a/e:thromboembolism11.Cytarabine (Cytosar-U):for nonlymphocytic anemia patient. Toxic effect: bonemarrow depression(s/s: fever, sore throat, signs of local infection, easy bruising, or unusual bleeding fromany site). Inform the MD!!12.Docetaxel (Taxotere): antineoplastic agent.S/E:alopecia, hypersensitivity reaction, fluid retention; Pt isprescribed an oral corticosteroid (dexamethasone (Decadron) 16 mg per day for 5 days, beginning day 1before docetaxel therapy) to reduce the severity of fluid retention or prevent a hypersensitivity reaction.13.Stavudine (Zerit): for HIV.S/E: Peripheral neuropathy,14.Ritonavir (Norvir): for HIV; Adm with food.15.Propofol (Diprivan) is an anesthetic agent for mechanical ventilation. A/E: HoTN16.NPH insulin peak time: 6-12 hours17.Chest tube: keep the water seal and suction control chamber at the appropriate water levels by addingsterile water as needed because water loss by evaporation may occur.18.PCOS- polycystic ovarian syndrome: is treated with oral contraceptives(treat menstrual irregularities andacne), glucophage(Metformin)(is used to improve insulin uptake by fat and muscle cells and treatshyperinsulinemia) and Clomid(Clomiphene) is to treat infertility.19.A decreased urinary output for the first 24 hours after surgery is a normal response from an increasedsecretion of Aldosterone and ADH.20.Paralytic ileus: is treated by insertion of a NG tube.21.Hematocrit:40%,Venous blood is used, reflects the ratio of blood cells to plasma.22.SLE s/s:photosensitivity, neuropathies, thrombocytopenia, pleural effusion23.Localized allergic reation: urticaria at the injection site24.Autonomic dysreflexia prevention: Check the urinary drainage system for obstructions, monitor bowelmovement regularity.25.LDL/HDL ratio: <4 is acceptable
 
26.Nonverbal cue: physical appreance27.SERM(hormone therapy): to block or counter the effect estrogen28.Cushing's syndrome S/S: Thinning and bruising of the skin, muscle weakness and wasting, fat depositsin the abd region, buffalo hump29.Absolute contraindications to estrogen therapy: a prior or current history of CAD, a history of known or suspected cancer of the breast.30.Bisphosphonates meds teaching: take the meds on an empty stomach and wait at least 30 mins beforeeating,recognize signs of hypocalcemia.31.ECT therapy priority care: potential for apnea.32. Child with positive throat cultures for streptococcal infection should discard their toothbrush and replaceit witha new one after they have been taking antibiotic for 24 hours.33.Lasix s/e: photosensitivity34.Levodopa s/s: orthostatic hypotension35. Excessive urinary stomal edema: urinary output below 30ml/hour 36. Chronic tinnitus associated with Meniere disease pt education: mask tinnitus with music isrecommended.37.Amitriptyline: tricyclic antidepressant38.The enema fluid should be administered slowly. If the client complains of pain or cramping, the flow isstoppedfor 30 seconds and restarted at a slower rate
 
39.Oxygen may be removed safely from the client with carbon monoxide poisoning once carboxyhemoglobinlevelsare less than 5%
 
40.The use of TCAs in individuals with second-degree and third-degree heart block can be fatal. Therefore,the nurse is responsible to ensure that the psychiatrist orders a baseline ECG before treating the client withTCAs
Nclex notes 3
1.Intussusception common in kids with CF. Obstruction may cause fecal emesis, currant jelly-likestools (blood and mucus). A barium enema may be used to hydrostatically reduce the telescoping.Resolution is obvious, with onset of bowel movements.
 
2.With omphalocele(abd wall defect, the intestine, liver and other organ remain outside of the abd in a sacdue to defect in abd wall) and gastroschisis (herniation of abdominal contents) dress with loose salinedressing covered with plastic wrap, and keep eye on temp. Kid can lose heat quickly.3. PKU (no meat, no dairy, no aspartame).4.Basal cell carcinoma TX: surgical excision, electrosurgery, cryosurgery5. Material safety data shhets provide detailed info about chemicals found in the workplace.6. TPN-total nutrient admixture: 1.2 micron air-eliminating final filter set is required for nutrient admixturesthat contain lipids for removal of inadvertent debris and fungi.7.Suspected cervical cord injury intervention: assess for visceral damage, adequacy of respiration, evidenceof an associated head injury, vital signs.8.Viginal meds applicator: after the adm of meds, wash, rinse, and dry the applicator, then wrap it in paper towel and place it in the client's top drawer of the bedside cabinet.9.Male infertility factor: anatomical and structural problems, abnormalities in sperm production, geneticconditions and unknown causes.10.Rectal suppository adm position: Sim's position11.A positive Western blot in a child <18 months (presence of HIV antibodies) indicatesonly thatthe mother is infected. Two or more positive p24 antigen tests will confirmHIV in kids <18 months. The p24can be used at any age.12. For HIV kids avoid OPV and Varicella vaccinations (live), but give Pneumococcal andinfluenza. MMR is avoided only if the kid is severely immunocompromised.
 
13. Anantacid should be given to a mechanically ventilated patient w/ an ng tube if the ph of the aspirate is<5.0. Aspirate should be checked at least every 12 hrs.
 
14.Ambient air (room air) contains21% oxygen.15.Normal PCWP is 8-13. Readings of 18-20 are considered high.

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