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1st Barcelona Metropolitan Strategic Plan

1st Barcelona Metropolitan Strategic Plan

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Published by Tbilisicds Georgia

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Published by: Tbilisicds Georgia on Jul 08, 2011
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1.BACKGROUND32.THE 1ST SMPB, IINSTRUMENT OF CHANGE93.THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF THE 1ST
 
SMPB114.DIAGRAM OF THE 1ST SMPB135.MISSION OF THE 1ST SMPB146.PRINCIPLES OF THE 1ST SMPB207.VISION OF THE 1ST SMPB218.PROPOSALS OF THE 1ST SMPB228.1.INTRODUCTION228.2.ECONOMIC GROWTH Vector248.3.TERRITORIAL MODEL Vector308.4. SOCIAL COHESION Vector 34
CONTENTS
 
3
1.1.Industrialisation as the basis of the socioeconomic model for theBarcelona Metropolitan Region
Since the end of the 1950s this metropolitan territory has seen economic andsocial consolidation, based on its own model of the 20
th
centuryindustrialism era,
and on a very reactive role as regards urban planning prior todemocracy, with a much more proactive approach from that period onwards and todate.Over the course of this broad time span, there has been a phenomenon of
symbiosis, between the city of Barcelona and its surrounding towns andvillages.
This symbiosis has been such that until the 1950s, growth was centred inBarcelona (around 80/85% of the BMR’s population) and from that time onwards,population growth spread out towards the surrounding areas, so that in 1960 theBarcelona’s weight in the overall region was around 77% of the population, in 1970it was 64%, in 1980 it was 56%, etc.This continuing process was very much accentuated in the 15-year period
between 1960 and 1975 when all the localities in the area doubled theirpopulation at least
. In some cases, the population tripled: el Prat, Sant Boi, SantFeliu, Sant Vicenç dels Horts; and in others, the population grew fourfold:Castelldefels, Sant Joan Despí and Viladecans.Overall, this symbiosis was the result of an
accelerated industrialisation process
that had a component induced by the migration of many industries from Barcelonatowards larger spaces and better prices offered by the surrounding municipalities(some 500 companies between 1964-1972) and the new companies that were setup –many of them multinationals– attracted by the market, by prices and salaries,and by the proximity of the Port and the Airport.All this strong business growth in the territory was supported by
higher volumesof immigration
(800,000 people in 20 years, in light of the ageing of the localpopulation and the low birth rate), along with
extensive use of the land
and a
lackof overall joint planning,
despite the attempts of the District Plan of 1953, theMaster Plan of 1966 (which notably broadened the region’s limits), of the firstproposal for the review of the District Plan of 1953 (presented in 1974) and of theGeneral Metropolitan Plan of 1976.It should be pointed out, also, that throughout this entire period,
the GeneralMetropolitan Plan was the only element that contributed and was committed
1. BACKGROUND
 
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to an authentically metropolitan model;
this circumstance did not arise againuntil the present.The result of this planning that was broadly overwhelmed in its first years, was aprocess of occupation of the land at an accelerated pace, the use of partial,fragmentary and incoherent plans –as a habitual system of detracting from theDistrict Plan–, irregularities, increases in developable land, changes of land use,etc..So this was a long phase, therefore, in which
the territory’s only strategy was toadapt itself to the needs of industrial processes and the needs of a broadmass of new citizens
that flocked in –first to Barcelona, then to the surroundingmunicipalities– attracted by the growing demand for human resources.
With high points and low points, this phase lasted until the mid 1970s,
whenthe major recession that took place led to a new social and economic model thatwould involve notable changes in social and productive behaviour and, obviously,have effects on specific territories.This step from one model to another was not immediate.
1.2.The transition towards a new socioeconomic model
Three important events characterise the birth of the transition phase:
the arrivalof democracy and the new values that Spain’s entry into the EuropeanEconomic Community meant for municipality representatives,
the end of theindustrial crisis, together with
the boom in new technologies and their rapidtranslation into new productive activities.
The new urban values of democracy revaluated the suburban reality of manymunicipalities and a constant advance was initiated towards the
consolidation ofnew urban realities
conceived by then as veritable towns, with better cohesion,better integration and a renewed citizen identity. Nonetheless,
this process
,necessarily focussed on the sphere of each town considered alone,
left on theback burner those aspects typical of a metropolitan vision,
since this functionhad not been taken on by any other administrative body. Therefore,
these townsreconsidered their role
, with a clearly proactive vocation as regards economicand social projects, and, in short, with a virtually generalised use of strategicplanning as an instrument for participation and the projection of each of the towns.At the current time, the following municipalities have strategic plans: Molins de Rei,Sant Boi, Sant Just, Santa Coloma, Baix Llobregat, Esplugues, Barcelona,Cornellà, l’Hospitalet, Badalona, Cerdanyola, etc.

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