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Table Of Contents

Introduction
1.1Electromagnetic compatibility in electrical supply systems
1.2Classification of system perturbations
1.4.1Complex calculations, vectors and phasor diagrams
1.4.2Fourier analysis and synthesis
1.4.3Symmetrical components
1.4.4Power considerations
1.4.5Series and parallel resonant circuits
1.5System conditions
1.5.1Voltage levels and impedances
1.5.2Features of the voltage in power systems
1.5.3Impedances of equipment
1.5.4Characteristics of typical equipment
1.6Calculation examples
1.6.1Graphical determination of symmetrical components
1.6.2Arithmetical determination of symmetrical components
1.6.3Calculation of equipment
1.7References
Harmonics and interharmonics
2.1Occurrence and causes
2.1.1General
2.1.2Occurrence due to network equipment
2.1.3Occurrence due to power electronics equipment
2.1.3.1Basic principles
2.1.3.2Full-wave rectifier with capacitor smoothing
2.1.3.3Three-phase bridge circuit
2.1.3.4Converters
2.1.4Occurrence due to random consumer behaviours
2.1.5Telecontrol signals
2.2Description and calculations
2.2.1Characteristics and parameters
2.3Harmonics and interharmonics in networks
2.3.1Calculation of networks and equipment
2.3.2Modelling of equipment
2.3.3Resonances in electrical networks
2.4Effects of harmonics and interharmonics
2.4.1General
2.4.2High-energy equipment
2.4.3Network operation
2.4.4Electronic equipment
2.4.5Protection, measuring and automation equipment
2.4.6Loads and consumers
2.4.7Assessment of harmonics
2.5Standardisation
2.5.1General
2.5.2Emitted interference
2.5.3Compatibility levels
2.5.4Interference immunity levels
2.6Examples of measurement and calculation
2.6.2Assessment of a harmonic generator
2.6.3Impedance calculation in a medium voltage network
2.6.4Typical harmonic spectra of low voltage consumers
2.7References
Voltage fluctuations and flicker
3.1Definitions
3.2Occurrence and causes
3.2.1Voltage fluctuations
3.2.2Flicker
3.3Flicker calculation in accordance with empirical formulae
3.3.1General
3.3.2Calculation of the voltage drop in general form
3.3.3Ast/Pst calculation
3.4Flicker calculation for random signals
3.4.1Mathematical description of the flicker algorithm
3.4.2The Pst disturbance assessment method
3.5Effects of voltage fluctuations
3.6Standardisation
3.7Examples of measurement and calculation
3.7.1Measurement of flicker in a low voltage system
3.7.2Calculation of an industrial system for resistance heating
3.8References
Voltage unbalance
4.1Occurrence and causes
4.2Description of unbalances
4.2.1Simplified examination
4.2.2Symmetrical components
4.3Effects of voltage unbalance
4.4Standardisation
4.5Examples of measurement and calculation
4.5.2Determining the unbalance of an industrial system
4.6Reference
Measurement and assessment of system perturbations
5.1General
5.2Sampling systems
5.2.1General characteristics
5.2.2Basic structure of a digital measuring instrument
5.2.3Transient recorders
5.2.4Harmonics analysers
5.2.5Flicker meter
5.2.6Combination instruments
5.3Measured value processing
5.3.1Statistical methods
5.3.2Measuring and evaluation methods
5.4Accuracy
5.4.1Algorithms and evaluation
5.4.2Instrument and isolating transformers, current clamp
5.5Use and connection of measuring instruments
5.5.1Low voltage system
5.5.2Medium and high voltage systems
5.6Standardisation
5.7Characteristics of measuring instruments
5.8Performance of measurements
5.9References
Countermeasures
6.1Assignment of countermeasures
6.2Reduction of the emitted interference from consumers
6.3Consumer-related measures
6.3.1Filter circuits
6.3.2Dynamic reactive power compensation
6.3.3Symmetrical connections
6.3.4Active filters
6.3.4.1High-performance batteries
6.3.4.2Superconductive magnetic energy storage
6.3.4.3Gyrating mass flywheel
6.3.4.4Comparison of various energy storage devices
6.4Measures related to power systems
6.6.1Designing the UPCS
6.6.2.2Optimisation of the location of active filters
6.7References
Notes on practical procedures
7.2Connection of harmonics generators, high-load consumers
7.3.1Measurements in 35 kV ring-cable network
7.4Disturbance investigation
7.4.3Network resonance in the low voltage network
7.4.4Reactive power compensation in a 500 V network
7.5References
Appendix
8.1Formula symbols and indices
8.1.1Formula symbols
8.1.2Indices, subscript
8.1.3Indices, superscript
Index
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Voltage Quality in Electrical Power Systems - IET 2000

Voltage Quality in Electrical Power Systems - IET 2000

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Published by: Camy Acuña on Jul 08, 2011
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