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Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

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Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(5): 157-169, 2011 ISSN 1991-8178

Human Resources Information Systems success Assessment: An integrative model
Haitham Al Shibly Department of business administration, Al Balqa Applied University, As_salt, Jordan.
Abstract: This research was in response to the call for continuous challenge and test of Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) success models, Based on the previous IS success models, this study presented and validated a comprehe
Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(5): 157-169, 2011 ISSN 1991-8178

Human Resources Information Systems success Assessment: An integrative model
Haitham Al Shibly Department of business administration, Al Balqa Applied University, As_salt, Jordan.
Abstract: This research was in response to the call for continuous challenge and test of Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) success models, Based on the previous IS success models, this study presented and validated a comprehe

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Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(5): 157-169, 2011ISSN 1991-8178
Human Resources Information Systems success Assessment: An integrative model
Haitham Al ShiblyDepartment of business administration, Al Balqa Applied University, As_salt, Jordan.
Abstract:
This research was in response to the call for continuous challenge and test of HumanResources Information Systems (HRIS) success models, Based on the previous IS success models, thisstudy presented and validated a comprehensive, multidimensional model of HRIS success, whichconsists of six success measures: perceived HRIS system quality, perceived HRIS information quality,perceived HRIS ease of use, perceived HRIS usefulness, HRIS satisfaction, HRIS success (net benefit).The empirical evidence HRIS success was affected by HRIS satisfaction, which, in turn, wasinfluenced by perceived HRIS system quality, perceived HRIS information quality, perceived HRISease of use, and perceived HRIS usefulness
Key words:
Human Resources Information Systems, TAM, HRIS success, Delone and Mcleansuccess model.
INTRODUCTION
Increasing demands placed on human resources (HR) by co-workers as well as internal and external forcesare rendering manual HR management completely adequate (Beckers and Bsat, 2002). Given such trends,information systems (IS) has considerable potential as a tool that managers can use, both generally and inhuman resourcing functions in particular to increase the capabilities of the organization (Tansley and Watson,2000). Those managing the HR functions have not ignored such advice and a widespread use of humanresource information systems (HRIS) has occurred (Ngai and Wat, 2006). Yet few organizations systematicallyattempt to measure the effectiveness of their IS, or even know how to do so (DeLone and McLean, 2003; Ngaiand Wat, 2006). Consequently, HR mangers as well as IS researchers are stressing the need to betterunderstand the factors that contribute to the success or otherwise of HRIS (Ngai and Wat, 2006; Hussain
et al
, 2007).Demand for useful measures for assessing the overall benefits of IS investments has long beenacknowledged (Myers
et al
, 1997; DeLone and McLean, 1992). However, there is no accepted or over allframework that arrange the important aspects of effective HRIS in a way helping to assist HRIS success, thesingle available options is by looking through the lens of well-known theories and models of IS success, bywhich the success of HRIS can be usefully assessed.This study thus reviews the extant literature related to the HRIS success. The study, then, develop andvalidate a multidimensional HRIS systems success model based on the IS success theories: the technologyacceptance model (TAM) (Davis, 1989), User satisfaction and DeLone and McLean information systemssuccess model (DeLone and McLean, 1992, 2003).The study argues that using user satisfaction as surrogate indicator for measuring the success of HRIS hassome theoretical difficulties, in similar vein, using TAM alone may not be sufficient to adequately capture thefull meaning of effectiveness or the success of HRIS; this study posits that HRIS success is a joint functionof system and information characteristics and acceptance. By integrating these two powerful theories, this studysuggests that the technology acceptance literature and the parallel user satisfaction stream are not competingapproaches to understanding IT usage and value. That is, user satisfaction and TAM represent complementarysteps in a causal chain from key characteristics of system design, to beliefs and expectations about outcomesthat ultimately determine usage. The key consequents of HRIS success are user-related, recognising theemployee’s important role in determining the success of business endeavours.
 2-The Concept, Nature and Use of an HRIS:
An HRIS is integrated system used to gather, store and analyze information regarding an organization’shuman resources” comprising of databases, computer applications and hardware and software necessary tocollect/record, store, manage, deliver, present and manipulate data for human resources function (Hendrickson,2003).
Corresponding Author:
Haitham Al Shibly, Department of business administration, Al Balqa Applied University, As_salt,Jordan.
157
 
 Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(5): 157-169, 2011
HRIS can support long range planning with information for labor force planning and supply and demandforecasts; staffing with information on equal employment, separations and applicant qualifications; anddevelopment with information on training program costs and trainee work performance. It can also supportcompensation programs, salary forecasts, pay budgets and labor/employee relations with information on contractnegotiations and employee assistance needs (DeSanctis, 1986; Kovach
et al
., 2002)HR requests might include such items as updated vacation and sick leave reports, performance reviewreports, salary histories, probation reports, expense reports, education and immigration status verifications,employee background checks, employee benefits summation, updated organizational charts and employeetelephone numbers, payroll processing, tax and other government regulations relating to HR (Beckers and Bsat,2002). All these types of inquiries need to be addressed by HRIS. Further according to Bsat and Beckers(2006) a HRIS consists of three components input, data maintenance and output. The input component focuseson entering HR data into the system.The cost of an HRIS can be high and therefore it is important that the benefits derived from theimplementation of an HRIS must be accessed (Bsat and Beckers, 2006). Still number of firms investing inHRIS has dramatically increased in recent years (Ball, 2001). Bsat and Beckers (2006) further argued that if the system can provide an organization with a competitive advantage by improving the HR-decision makingprocess, this would have enormous implications on productivity, cost reductions, product quality.Hagood and Friedman (2002) observed that HRIS implementation success has emerged as a significantchallenge for organizations attempting to justify planned investments or recover expenses associated withinvestments already incurred. This is further supported by Shrivatsava and Shaw (2003) that despite evidenceof increasing use of HR related technology by individual firms, there has been little theory development in thisarea
 3-The Theoretical Foundations of HRIS Success Model:
In our review of the IS success literature, we found no study specifically aimed at comprehensivelyexamining the success of HRIS. Consequently, in developing our theoretical model, We drew inspiration fromthree significant streams of IS success: (a) the technology acceptance model (TAM) (Davis, 1989), (b) Usersatisfaction and (c) DeLone and McLean information systems success model (DeLone and McLean, 1992,2003), to explain the success of HRIS. The relevance of applying traditional IS models such as TAM and usersatisfaction in studying the success of HRIS can be also ascertained from recent research papers which hasstarted to draw attention that research in the IS success is fragmented and criticized for lack of theoreticalgrounding (Avgerou, 2000, Larsen, 2003).
(a) Technology Acceptance Model:
The first theoretical base of this study is Davis (1989) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), TAM iswidely applied to investigate user acceptance of technology. Davis (1989) claimed that, all else being equal,an application that the end-user perceives as being easier to use than another is more likely to be accepted.According to TAM, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, both influence one’s attitude towardsystem usage, which influences one’s behavioral intention to use a system, which, in turn, determines actualsystem usage.Originally, Davis (1989) found a weak link between perceived usefulness and attitude, but a strong link between perceived usefulness and behavioral intention, therefore dropped attitude from the final model. Therevised model of TAM has two versions: pre and post implementation. Davis (1989) expressed that in boththe phases of implementations, individuals would depend more on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use to form intentions which predicts acceptance behaviorIn fact, TAM has proven to be among the most effective models in the IS literature for predicting useracceptance and usage behavior. Yet, few of TAM studies have investigated the impact of system characteristicsas antecedents to ease of use or perceived usefulness (Wixom and Todd, 2005). In their integration of thetechnology acceptance literature, Venkatesh
et al
. (2003) stress the need to extend this literature by explicitlyconsidering system and information characteristics and the way in which they might influence the core beliefsin TAM and might indirectly shape system usage.
(b) User satisfaction as surrogate indicator of IS success:
A surrogate indicator of IS success often suggested is user satisfaction. Many IS empirical researchers haveregarded user satisfaction as important proxy of IS success and it is the most employed measure of IS successdue to its applicability and ease of use (Zviran and Erlich, 2003).158
 
 Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(5): 157-169, 2011
In IS literature, user satisfaction has been defined and described by linking attitudes à behaviour. Forexample, Baroudi
et al
. (1986) defined it as the
“extent to which users believe the information systemsavailable to them meets their information requirement”
. Baroudi
et al
. (1986) highlight that user satisfactionis an attitude toward the IS.In contrast to the technology acceptance literature, system and information characteristics have been coreelements in the literature on user satisfaction (DeLone and McLean 1992). Within this literature, usersatisfaction is typically viewed as the attitude that a user has toward an information system; Doll andTorkzadeh (1991) say that user satisfaction is an important theoretical construct because of its potential todetermine both upstream and downstream links in this value chain (figure 1). Upstream activities refer tofactors that cause satisfaction, where user satisfaction is treated as a dependent variable and downstreamactivities refer to behaviors affected by satisfaction, where user satisfaction is treated as an independent orantecedent factor (Doll and Torkzadeh, 1991).
Fig. 1:
Systems to Value ChainIn a review of user satisfaction research, Au
et al
, 2002, showed that user satisfaction research has focusedon the upstream activities and studies on the downstream chain have been relatively narrow. In similar vein,a review of antecedents of IS success show that research concerning performance related behaviour has beenlight and contains only a few concepts, with measures such as the one identified as “individual impact” byDeLone and McLean (1992).One of the implicit suppositions made by researchers employing user satisfaction measurements for ISeffectiveness evaluation is that there will be a correlation between user satisfactions and IS effectiveness.However, as noted by Gatian (1994) as well as Melone (1990), there is evidence that this is an inaccurateassumption. Such an argument was developed by Melone (1990) in a review of a range of literature. Firstly,user satisfaction as a measure of effectiveness implies a particular view of the organization and itsmanagement, namely a focus upon support rather than output. Secondly, Melone argued that it possible to havean effective IS system without satisfied users.Gatian’s review of user satisfaction concluded that user satisfaction alone is not sufficient to adequatelycapture the full meaning of IS effectiveness, since it does not linking user satisfaction with measures of userbehavior. Doll and Torkzadeh (1991) pointed out that to define “
 performance related behaviors that link user satisfaction with social and economic impact”
was a problem for IS researchers. They argued that too often-such performance related indicators might be specific to individual systems and hence have no broad use.
(c) DeLone and McLean Information success model:
Although user satisfaction has for a long time been recognized as an indicator of IS success (Bailey andPerson, 1983; Ives
et al
., 1983), the mechanism by which to measure it was not clear. Information and systemfeatures were not always been explicitly separated as dimensions of user satisfaction until DeLone and McLean(1992) distinguished information quality and systems quality.DeLone and McLean (1992) conceptually developed, but did not empirically test, a model of IS successthat included six aspects: system quality, information quality, use, user satisfaction, individual impact andorganizational impact. System quality, refers to the characteristics of the information system as well as the“processing” of the system, the flexibility offered by the system, the amount of information/resources itaccesses, etc. DeLone and McLean (2003) refer to information quality as a “content issue.”Seddon (1997) modify DeLone and McLean’s model and proposes an alternative model that focuses onthe causal (variance) aspects of the interrelationships among the taxonomic categories and separates thevariance model of IS success from the variance model of behaviors that occur as a result of IS success. Seddon(1997) IS success model includes three classes of variables: (1) measures of Information Quality and SystemQuality; (2) general perceptual measures of net benefits of IS use (i.e. Perceived Usefulness and UserSatisfaction); and (3) other measures of net benefits of IS use. Seddon (1997) also claims that IS Use is abehaviour, not a success measure and replaces DeLone and McLean’s (1992) IS Use with PerceivedUsefulness, which serves as a general perceptual measure of the IS use, to adapt his model to both volitionaland non-volitional usage contexts.159

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