Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the activationsignal of muscles.
EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyography, to produce arecord called an electromyogram.
n electromyograph detects the electrical potential generated by muscle cells whenthese cells contract, and also when the cells are at rest.
Muscles are stimulated by signals from nerve cells called motor neurons. This stimulationcauses electrical activity in the muscle, which in turn causes the muscle to contract or tighten. The muscle contraction itself produces electrical signals
Electromyography (EMG) measures the response of muscles and nerves to electricalactivity. It·s used to help determine muscle conditions that be causing muscleweakness, including muscular dystrophy and nerve disorders
EMG is most often used when people have symptoms of weakness and examinationshows impaired muscle strength. It can help to differentiate primary muscle conditionsfrom muscle weakness caused by neurologic disorders
or the purpose of EMG, a needle electrode is inserted into the muscle (the insertion ofthe needle might feel similar to an injection). The signal from the muscle is thentransmitted from the needle electrode through a wire (or more recently, wirelessly) to areceiver/ amplifier, which is connected to a device that displays a readout. The resultsare either printed on a paper stripper, more commonly, on a computer screen
HAT CAN EMG DIAGNOSE?
EMG can diagnose three kinds of disease that interfere with normal muscle contraction1.
iseases of the muscle itself (most commonly muscular dystrophy in children)2.
iseases of the neuromuscular junction, which is the connection between a nervefiber and the muscle it supplies3.
iseases ´upstreamµ in nerve roots (which can be due to either nerve damage or ongoing nerve injury)
Muscle tissue is normally electrically silent at rest. Once the insertion activity (caused bythe trauma of needle insertion) quiets down, there should be no action potential on theoscilloscope. When the muscle is voluntarily contracted, action potentials begin toappear.
s contraction is increased, more and more muscle fibers produce actionpotentials until a disorderly group of action potentials of varying rates and amplitudes(complete recruitment and interference pattern) appears with full contraction
isorders or conditions that cause abnormal results include the following:
enervation (reduced neuron stimulation)
arpal tunnel syndrome
myotropic Lateral Sclerosis (
Myopathy (Muscle degeneration, may be caused by a number ofdisorders, including muscular dystrophy)