not the theory per se
needed to be included for culturallycompetent care. Hence, the Sunrise Model was created (Leininger, 1997).
culture care meanings
factors influencing care:-religion, politics, economics, worldview, environment, cultural values, history,language, gender, and others.
To discover and explain diverse and universal culturally based care factors influencing thehealth, well-being, illness, or death of individuals or groups.
To use research findings to provide culturally congruent, safe, and meaningful care to clients of diverseor similar cultures
Literature of the Sunrise Model, Explained
(excerpt from Parker, 2001)
The Sunrise Model (Figure 1) was developed to give a holistic and comprehensive conceptual pictureof the major factors held as important to the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality(Leininger, 1995, 1997a). The model is a conceptual visual guide depicting multiple factors predicted toinfluence culturally congruent care with people of different cultures. The model essentially serves as acognitive guide for the researcher to visualize and reflect on different factors predicted to influenceculturally based care in the discovery process.The Sunrise Model has also been used as a valuable guide for doing culturalogical health-careassessment of clients health needs. As the researcher uses the model, the different factors depicted inthe model are kept in mind in relation to discovering culture care phenomena. Gender and sexualorientation, race, class factors, biomedical condition, and the extent of acculturation are all an integralpart of the model and theory.The factors tend to be embedded in social structure, worldview, and other dimensions identified in theSunrise Model and are usually not quickly identifiable. Hence, they are not isolated variables but arelodged in their natural and meaningful cultural context, yet are important discovery areas within thetheory.According to the researchers interests and skills, one can begin the discovery at any place in the modelexcept with the three modes of action and decisions, which are studied last or after drawing upon datacollected in the upper part of the model. All factors in the model need to be studied to obtaincomprehensive or holistic data in order to arrive at an accurate picture of culturally based care. Someresearchers may want to start with generic and professional care, whereas others may begin with theworldview and social structure dimensions.There is flexibility in the discovery process to fit the informants interest and level of comfort as well asthe researchers goals, domains of inquiry, and research skills. Because three modes of action anddecision (in the lower part of the model) are studied and formulated with informants after the