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Geography Material

Geography Material

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Published by: suresh on Jul 09, 2011
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Physical Geography
 The Earth²Its Motions and their Effects
 The earth has two motions,
Rotation around its axis or the daily motion. The axis of the earth is an imaginary line inclined at 66.5° to the plane of the orbit of the earth. The earthrotates round its axis from west to east once in 24 hours. Effects: Days and nights are caused.The sun, moon and other heavenly bodies appear to revolve round the earth from east to west.Direction of winds and currents is changed.
Revolution round the sun on its orbit, or the annual motion: The earth revolves round thesun once in about 365.25 days. Effects: It causes seasons; days and nights are of unequallength at the same place.
Important elements in the earth¶s crust
 The five most abundant elements in the earth¶s crust are: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminium, Ironand Calcium. (The other three are Sodium, Potassium and Magnesium.)
Oceans²Their Importance
 Oceans are the source of all water on earth as the evaporated water from over their surface is brought to earth by the winds passing over them. They are the highways of the world andmost of the world trade is carried through the sea. Innumerable fish and other animals livingin the oceans are a great source of food to mankind. Minerals like salt, iodine etc. are derivedfrom the ocean waters and sea-weeds.
Ocean Currents:
are rivers of warm or cold water flowing in an ocean. Their banks and bedsalso consist of water.
Natural Regions
 A natural region is a large area in which the topography, climate and vegetation are largelysimilar, and therefore there is a certain uniformity in human activities.
Natural Regions of the World
 (1) Equatorial Region (2) Hot-Grassland Region (3) Monsoon Region (4) Hot Deserts Region(5) Mediterranean Region (6) Steppe Region (7) Tundra Region (8) Warm Temperate Region(9) Cool Temperate Region.
Natural Regions of India
 (1) The Himalayas and the adjacent mountains; (2) The Sutlej-Ganga plains; (3) The coastal plains of Western and Eastern ghats; (4) The Deccan plateau.
Factors Determining Climate of a Place
 (1) Distance from the Equator (2) Height above sea-level (3) Distance from the sea (4) Winds(5) Direction of Mountains (6) Ocean currents (7) Slope of land (8) Nature of the soil (9)Forests.
Factors Determining Temperature
 (i) sun rays, (ii) height above sea-level (iii) movements of atmospheric winds, (iv) oceancurrents.
Two important conditions must be satisfied in order to have rain: (1) There should bemoisture-laden air, (2) There should be some means whereby air is cooled and condensationtakes place. The air obtains water vapours by evaporation from the surface of large bodies of water, usually from the sea.
Monsoons in India
 Monsoons are periodic winds which blow from sea to land for six months in summer andfrom land to sea for six months in winter. Monsoon winds prevail over India at differentseasons.
 South-West Monsoons:
These are rain-bearing winds which prevail from about the end of May to the end of September. During summer, the sun¶s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of Cancer making the Indian plains intensely hot. But the rays of the sun fall obliquely over theIndian Ocean during this period. The land is hotter than the sea, there is, therefore, low pressure over the land and high pressure over the sea. The winds blow from high to low pressure i.e., from the sea to the land, and are therefore wet winds. Because of the rotation of the earth, the monsoon winds blowing over India deflect to the right after crossing theEquator and become south-west winds. These are, therefore, called south-west monsoons.India depends largely on these rain-bearing south-west winds. These winds give to Indiaabout 90% of the total rainfall. During their prevalence, the chief crops cultivated are rice,cotton, tobacco, tea, jawar and bajra.
 North-East Monsoons (or Winter Monsoons):
During the months of November to Januaryi.e., in winter, the sun¶s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of Capricorn. The air over the IndianOcean during this period thus becomes hot and light and there is low pressure. The sun¶s raysfall obliquely on the plains of India during these months with the result that the air over these plains is cold and heavy and there is high pressure. The winds, therefore, blow from plains tothe Indian Ocean. While crossing the Equator, they deflect to the left and are known as north-east monsoons.The North-East Monsoons bring only about 10% of the total rain to India as they are chillyand dry land winds. But the moisture that they pick from the Bay of Bengal, little as it is, isvery useful. Wheat, barley, oats, oilseeds and sugarcane are cultivated during this season.Thus these monsoon winds have much importance for India.
Weather and Climate
 Weather means the atmospheric conditions e.g., temperature, rainfall, humidity, winds,sunshine and cloudiness of a particular place on a particular day. Climate, on the other hand,is the average condition of weather obtaining in a country or a place for a considerable period.India has a great diversity of climatic conditions. Lying largely within the tropics and in thegreat Asiatic Continent and the vast expanse of the Indian Ocean to the South, the climate of India is essentially the tropical monsoon type. The average annual rainfall in India is 42inches.
Types of Soil in India
 The main categories of soils in India are: (i) Alluvial soils (ii) Black soils (iii) Red soils (iv)Laterite soils (v) Mountain and hill soils (vi) Terai soils (vii) Desert (or Arid) soil and (viii)
Peat soils.
lluvial soil and Black soil
 Alluvial soil is that soil which is formed by deposition of silts brought down by the rivers. Itis rich in hydrated oxides of iron and is very fertile. Black soil or the black cotton soil has agood water-holding capacity and is best suited for deep-rooted crops like cotton. The black soil in wet condition is compact and sticky.The most extensive soil cover of India comprises alluvial soils.
Soil Erosion:
The soils are usually six to twelve inches in depth. In course of time, thefertility level of the soil is depleted with the result that the soil no longer remains suitable for agriculture. Soil conservation is, therefore, necessary for continued agricultural prosperity.The agencies of erosion are winds, water and waves of which the water erosion is mostcommon. Rain water removes soil from the surface of sloping lands. Winds remove top soilof lands.
Laterite soils
are formed by the weathering of laterite rocks. These can be distinguished fromother soils by their acidity. Laterite soils are generally poor on the higher levels and cannotretain moisture. In the plains, however, they consist of heavy loams and clay and can retainmoisture.Laterite soils occur in Madhya Pradesh, Assam and along the Eastern and Western Ghats. Tea plantation requires acidity which is there in the laterite soil. It is, therefore, common in theseareas.
Star and Planet
 Star is the name given to a fixed celestial body which has its own light whereas Planet is thename given to a celestial body which revolves round the sun in elliptical (regular oval shape)orbit. A planet has no light of its own but reflects the light of the sun.
 Three main groups of rocks: Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.
Classification of rocks
neous rocks:
 Sedimentary rocks:
sandstone; limestone; shale; coal.
 Metamorphic rocks:
This rock is formed by deposits of animal shells and skeletons.
Land Breeze and Sea Breeze
and Breeze:
At night, land masses cool quicker than the sea. Therefore, in calm, cloudlessweather, an air-stream passes from the land to the sea. This breeze carries no moisture, and isa little warm.
 Sea Breeze:
In day-time, the land is hotter than the sea. The air over it rises, and is replaced by a cool breeze from the sea carrying some moisture.

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