The Earth²Its Motions and their Effects
The earth has two motions,
Rotation around its axis or the daily motion. The axis of the earth is an imaginary line inclined at 66.5° to the plane of the orbit of the earth. The earthrotates round its axis from west to east once in 24 hours. Effects: Days and nights are caused.The sun, moon and other heavenly bodies appear to revolve round the earth from east to west.Direction of winds and currents is changed.
Revolution round the sun on its orbit, or the annual motion: The earth revolves round thesun once in about 365.25 days. Effects: It causes seasons; days and nights are of unequallength at the same place.
Important elements in the earth¶s crust
The five most abundant elements in the earth¶s crust are: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminium, Ironand Calcium. (The other three are Sodium, Potassium and Magnesium.)
Oceans are the source of all water on earth as the evaporated water from over their surface is brought to earth by the winds passing over them. They are the highways of the world andmost of the world trade is carried through the sea. Innumerable fish and other animals livingin the oceans are a great source of food to mankind. Minerals like salt, iodine etc. are derivedfrom the ocean waters and sea-weeds.
are rivers of warm or cold water flowing in an ocean. Their banks and bedsalso consist of water.
A natural region is a large area in which the topography, climate and vegetation are largelysimilar, and therefore there is a certain uniformity in human activities.
Natural Regions of the World
(1) Equatorial Region (2) Hot-Grassland Region (3) Monsoon Region (4) Hot Deserts Region(5) Mediterranean Region (6) Steppe Region (7) Tundra Region (8) Warm Temperate Region(9) Cool Temperate Region.
Natural Regions of India
(1) The Himalayas and the adjacent mountains; (2) The Sutlej-Ganga plains; (3) The coastal plains of Western and Eastern ghats; (4) The Deccan plateau.
Factors Determining Climate of a Place
(1) Distance from the Equator (2) Height above sea-level (3) Distance from the sea (4) Winds(5) Direction of Mountains (6) Ocean currents (7) Slope of land (8) Nature of the soil (9)Forests.
Factors Determining Temperature
(i) sun rays, (ii) height above sea-level (iii) movements of atmospheric winds, (iv) oceancurrents.