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Yield criterion accounting for the third invariant of stress tensor deviator. Part I. Proposition of yield criterion based on the concept of influence functions, M. Nowak, J.Ostrowska-Maciejewska, R.B. Pecherski, P. Szeptynski

Yield criterion accounting for the third invariant of stress tensor deviator. Part I. Proposition of yield criterion based on the concept of influence functions, M. Nowak, J.Ostrowska-Maciejewska, R.B. Pecherski, P. Szeptynski

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Engineering Transactions, 59, 273-282, 2011
Engineering Transactions, 59, 273-282, 2011

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ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS 
Engng. Trans.
59
, 4, 273–281, 2011Polish Academy of Sciences
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT PAN)National Engineering School of Metz (ENIM)
YIELD CRITERION ACCOUNTING FOR THE THIRD INVARIANTOF STRESS TENSOR DEVIATOR.PART I. PROPOSITION OF THE YIELD CRITERIONBASED ON THE CONCEPT OF INFLUENCE FUNCTIONSM. N o w a k
1)
, J. O s t r o w s k aM a c i e j e w s k a
1)
,R.B. P ę c h e r s k i
1)
, P. S z e p t y ń s k i
1
,
2)
1)
Institute of Fundamental Technological ResearchPolish Academy of Sciences
Pawińskiego 5B, 02-106 Warszawa, Poland
2)
AGH University of Science and TechnologyFaculty of Mechanical Engineering and RoboticsDepartment of Strength, Fatigue of Materials and Structures
Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, PolandA proposition of an energy-based hypothesis of material effort for isotropic materials ex-hibiting strength-differential (SD) effect, pressure-sensitivity and Lode angle dependence is dis-cussed. It is a special case of a general hypothesis proposed by the authors in [11] for anisotropicbodies, based on
Burzyński’s
concept of influence functions [2] and
Rychlewski’s
conceptof elastic energy decomposition [16]. General condition of the convexity of the yield surfaceis introduced, and its derivation is given in the second part of the paper. Limit condition isspecified for Inconel 718 alloy, referring to the experimental results published by
Iyer
and
Lissenden
[7].
1. Introduction
1.1. Motivation 
In recent years, the number of new materials (e.g. composites, modern al-loys) exhibiting certain uncommon properties – such as low elastic symmetry,pressure sensitivity, Lode angle dependence, strength differential effect – stillincreases and they become more and more commonly used. Furthermore, theprecision of the measurement tools and accuracy of mathematical or numericalmodels used for the description of industrial processes is still improved, so someof the mentioned phenomena, which for decades have been considered negli-gible, now seem to be necessary to be involved in the mechanical analysis of the considered processes. Classical yield criteria, which are still commonly used
 
274
M. NOWAK
et al 
.
both in elastic and plastic analysis (as limit conditions or plastic potentials incase of associated flow rule), cannot deal with those specific features of modernmaterials in a satisfactory way.Many propositions of the yield criteria for anisotropic bodies were alreadystated (e.g.
Mises
[10],
Burzyński
[2],
Hill
[4],
Hoffman
[5],
Tsai-Wu
[20],
Rychlewski
[15],
Theocaris
[19] etc.), however some of them were poorlymotivated physically being just of purely mathematical nature [5] or havingonly empirical character [19, 20]. Such approach enables one-to-one correlationbetween the final values of the parameters of the criterion and the limit quan-tities obtained from the experiment. Despite its great practical meaning, suchan approach makes no contribution to the research on the nature of materialeffort. Furthermore, mathematical form of the criterion (arbitrary chosen byauthor) often constrains it in such a way that it is not possible to account forsome of the phenomena mentioned above. In case of physically motivated limitcriteria by
Burzyński
[2] and
Rychlewski
[15], other problems occur. Strictlyenergy-based limit condition by Rychlewski as a quadratic function of stresscannot account for the strength differential. In case of Burzyński’s hypothesis,some misstatements in the final formulation of the limit condition for anisotropicsolids were recently found and discussed in [18].
1.2. General proposition of a yield criterion for anisotropicbodies exhibiting SD effect 
In [11] the authors have introduced a new proposition of a limit condition foranisotropic materials with asymmetric elastic range. It was directly motivatedby ideas of spectral decomposition of compliance tensor
C
and elastic energydecompositions introduced by
Rychlewski
[15, 16] and the idea of stress statedependent influence functions introduced by
Burzyński
[2], which enabled himimprovement of the classical
Huber–Mises
[6] condition so that it accountedfor the SD effect. It is stated that as a measure of material effort one can considerthe following combination:(1.1)
η
1
Φ
(
σ
1
) +
...
+
η
χ
Φ
(
σ
χ
)
, χ
6
such that:(1.2)
T  
2
sym
=
H  
1
...
H  
χ
H  
α
˙
H  
β
for
α
=
β
σ
=
σ
1
+
...
+
σ
χ
,
σ
α
H  
α
,
σ
α
σ
β
=
σ
α
·
(
C
·
σ
β
) = 0
for
α
=
β,
where
η
α
is a certain stress-state dependent function. To keep mutual indepen-dence of the terms of the criterion, it is assumed that it depends only on the
 
YIELD CRITERION ACCOUNTING... PART I.
275stress state component corresponding with the proper elastic energy density
σ
α
(the projection of 
σ
onto
H  
α
)(1.3)
η
α
=
η
α
(
σ
α
)
and that it is isotropic in its domain (subspace
H  
α
), thus it can be expressedonly in terms of invariants of 
σ
α
(1.4)
η
α
(
σ
α
) =
η
α
(
1
(
σ
α
);
2
(
σ
α
);
3
(
σ
α
))
.
More details can be found in [11].Among all possible energetically orthogonal decompositions of the space of symmetric second order tensors
T  
2
sym
=
H  
1
...
H  
χ
, the choice of the decom-position into eigensubspaces of compliance tensor
C
is the best motivated bothphysically (due to clear physical interpretation of those subspaces) and mathe-matically (since it is the only decomposition of 
T  
2
sym
which is both orthogonaland energetically orthogonal).
2. General limit condition for pressure-sensitive, Lode angledependent isotropic bodies exhibiting SD effect
Even in case of the simplest materials, namely those macroscopically homo-geneous and isotropic, such as modern alloys, many classical yield criteria (i.e.
Huber–Mises
[6, 9],
Burzyński
[2],
Drucker–Prager
[3] etc.) fail to de-scribe them correctly either due to lack of pressure-sensitivity or the Lode angledependence. The special isotropic case of the yield criterion introduced above isfound suitable for accounting for the influence of both the pressure and Lode’sangle.From the spectral decomposition of isotropic compliance tensor we obtaina one-dimensional subspace of spherical tensors (hydrostatic stresses) and five-dimensional subspace of deviators (shears). Energy density is decomposed intoenergy density of distortion
Φ
and energy density of volume change
Φ
v
. Yieldcondition (1.1) can be rewritten in the following form:(2.1)
˜
η
v
(
1
(
A
σ
);
2
(
A
σ
);
3
(
A
σ
))
Φ
v
+ ˜
η
(
1
,
2
,
3
)
Φ
= 1
,
where
A
σ
is the isotropic component of the stress tensor and
1
,
2
,
3
areinvariants of the stress tensor deviator. It is known that:(2.2)
1
(
A
σ
) = 3
 p,
2
(
A
σ
) = 3
 p
2
,
3
(
A
σ
) =
p
3
,
1
= 0
,
2
=12
q
2
,
3
=13
6
q
3
cos(3
θ
)
,Φ
v
=
p
2
2
, Φ
=
q
2
4
G,

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