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Points Planes Lines

Points Planes Lines

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Published by alexiouu
Constructs for 3D points planes and lines using homogeneous coordinates. Also the conversions to-from vector quantities is included.
Constructs for 3D points planes and lines using homogeneous coordinates. Also the conversions to-from vector quantities is included.

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Published by: alexiouu on Jul 11, 2011
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01/29/2012

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Projective Geometry
May 19, 2011
1 3D Lines
Figure1shows the definition with Pl¨ucker coordinates of a line
L
given a direc-tion vector
e
and the moment vector
 m
.
L
=
e m
(1)
Figure 1
Pl¨ucker coordinates for a line include the direction vector
e
and themoment vector
 m
. The moment vector describes the tangential velocity on aspinning disk at a distance
r
from the line, with unit rotational velocity.
Typically the line is defined as having a direction
e
and passing through a point
located at
r
as
L
=
er
×
e
(2)since
r
= -
r
and
 m
=
e
×
r
= -
r
×
e
=
r
×
e
2 3D Points and Planes
Figure2shows the definition points, planes using the position vector
r
 p
=
dn
,with
n
the normal vector and
d
the distance from the origin. In homogeneous1
 
NRB Analytical Engineering John Alexiou - john.alexiou@koyobearings.comcoordinates, a point
and a plane
are defined as
=
r
1
=
n
-
d
(3)The minus sign in the plane definition is due to the fact the the normal plane isfacing away from the origin. A major feature of Homogeneous coordinates, aswell as Pl¨ucker coordinates is that when multiplied by any non-zero scalar, theystill describe the same point, plane or line. Sometimes, in the following pagesyou will see the equals sign ’=’ being used in expressions when numerically theelements are all scaled by some quantity, but the resulting definition is identical.For example
=
r
1
=
δr δ
.
Figure 2
Point and Plane representation in homogeneous coordinates.
The order of scalar and vector quantities in the point and plane definitions arechosen such that the dot product between them returns zero when the point iscoincident to the plane
·
=
dn
1
·
n
d
=
d
(
n
·
n
)
d
= 0 (4)Consider the general (non coincident) case with
r
=
dn
then the dot productis
·
=
r
1
·
n
d
=
n
·
r
d
(5)which is the distance of the point to the plane along the normal direction.The definitions described in the pages that follow are all derived from vectorpoints, vector normal directions, and scalar distances. The next section showshow to extract these quantities from existing geometry constructs, and then howto compose the geometry constructs in homogeneous coordinates from thosequantities.2
 
NRB Analytical Engineering John Alexiou - john.alexiou@koyobearings.com
3 Vector Components of Points, Planes and Lines
The table below shows how given the componets of points, planes and lines,important vectors and distances are extracted using some basic vector algebra.These are established from the reverse of the the point, plane and line constructsfrom vectors seen it table2Components Direction Normal Distance PositionPoints
=
  pδ
e
= null(
  p
)
n
=
  p
|
  p
|
d
=
|
  p
|
δr
=
  pδ
Planes
=
 w
e
= null(
 w
)
n
=
 w
|
 w
|
d
= -
|
 w
|
r
= -
 w 
|
 w
||
 w
|
Lines
L
=
  m
e
=
 
 
n
=
 
×
 m
|
 m
|
 
d
=
|
 m
|
 
 
 
r
=
 
×
 m
 
 
Table 1
– Definitions for points, planes and lines in homogeneous coordinates.
For points the direction points away from the origin, and distance is the dis-tannce between the point and the origin. For planes the direction is normal tothe plane, and distance is the closest separation from the origin. When negativethe plane is pointing towards the origin, and when positive it is pointing awayfrom the origin. For lines the direction is along the line, and distance is theclosest separation from the origin. Since
 m
and
 
are orthogonal to each otherby definition then
 m
×
 
=
|
 m
|
 
.A necessary condition for line coordinates is that
 m
·
 
= 0.. When this conditionis lifted then the definition is for a
screw
instead of a line, with the extracoordinate describing the screw pitch (distance per revolution).3

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