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Unit 4-Ecology Evolution Ecoystems Global Warming Forensics Answers

Unit 4-Ecology Evolution Ecoystems Global Warming Forensics Answers

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Published by: areyouthere92 on Jul 11, 2011
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03/09/2015

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1.
(a)
biomass
weight / mass, of, organisms / plants & animals ;
 productivity
 rate at which biomass / materials produced /synthesised / energy incorporated / energy transferred(into a trophic level) (could be expressed as per unit time ) ;2 (b)(i)
 grazed 
- (increase of) 150 so rate is 150 / 32 =4.7 / 4.69 g m
 –2
day
 –1
ungrazed 
- (decrease of) 130 so rate is 130 / 32 =4.1 / 4.06 g m
 –2
day
 –1
(note – allow 31 days, giving 4.8 and – 4.19 )change for both correctly read (could be 200-50/ 32and 300-430/32) ;correct rate calculation for grazing ;correct rate for ungrazed with negative sign ;correct units for either ;
(allow consequential error if wrong reading but correct maths)
4 (ii)no / lack of, compensatory growth ;competition for light / long leaves shading other leaves /less light penetration ;reduced photosynthesis ;competition for, water / nutrients / minerals ;leaves dying ;grass being grazed by, birds / insects (that can fly in) ;max 3 (c)(i)0.5 arbitrary units ;1(ii)(large numbers of) animals, trample/crush, grass ;overgrazing / too many grasses/plants eaten/damaged /reference to exceeding carrying capacity ;grasses unable to recover / few leaves so little photosynthesis / takes longer to grow back ;too much excreta / dung / urine /eq ;reference to soil compaction + qualification ;max 3
1
 
(d)fewer, grazing animals / named grazers / herbivoreskilled, so numbers increase ;leads to, overgrazing / more grasses/plants eaten /reduction in numbers of primary producers ;grassland has reduced / less productivity ;leads to, grass shortage/ reduced biomass of grass,fewer / death of grazing animals / grazing animalsmigrate / reduced reproduction rate ;increase in numbers of other/named carnivores / decrease in scavengers / namedscavengers ;max 3 (e)(Converted to) ammonium; by, decomposers / saprophytes / bacteria / fungi / putrefying bacteria ;(ammonium) oxidised to nitrite ; by nitrifying bacteria (allow once) /
 Nitrosomonas / Nitrococcus
;(nitrites) oxidised to nitrate ; by nitrifying bacteria /
 Nitrobacter 
;
 Note can use chemical symbols but must be correct 
max 4
[20]
 2.
(a)(taken up from atmosphere) 93 + 121 = 214 ;(released into atmosphere) 90 + 120 + 1.6 + 0.1 + 5.5 = 217.2 ;difference = 3.2 Gt (year 
 –1
) ;[allow consequential error]3 (b)planting of trees ;reference to photosynthesis ;carbon locked up in trees / reference to lignin or wood or cellulose ;trees live for long time / hundreds of years ; plants / trees die and become buried in swamps / eq ; peat forms ;fossil fuel forms ;reference to shells / exoskeletons / limestone / calcareous rock ;reference to carbon sink (anywhere) ;4
 
(c)reference 93 Gt taken in, 90 Gt released / net of 3 Gt taken up / eq ;some carbon, taken up by marine animals ;forms calcium carbonate / forms shell / exoskeleton ;example of marine animal (diatoms, corals, molluscs etc) ;used in photosynthesis ;of algae / plankton ;marine organisms die and form sediment on seabed / settle on sea bed / eq ;(sediments form) fossils / limestone / calcareous rock / chalk / oil / gas ;4 (d)improved fuel efficiency / eq ;increased use of public transport / eq ; burn hydrogen / ethanol / gasohol / biogas (rather than petrol / oil ) ; produce / use (electricity) from nuclear / solar / wind / water / geothermal / wood / energycrop / straw / renewable energy ; burning gas / methane in power station rather than oil / coal ;reference to planting trees / forests / afforestation ;3
[14]
 3.
(a)9.4 and 11.41(b)Women of 15–49 are {fertile / of reproductive age};{Approximately / eq} half of all women aged 15-49 are infected with HIV;They could give birth to infected children;Die before giving birth / not have children;2 (c)Overall, population will get smaller;Fewer women surviving to give birth, so fewer children;{1 in 5 adults / eq) will die of AIDS in future;Children dying of AIDS;So population consists of older people;2
[5]
 4.
(a)Remote sensing / satellite (images) / GIS / Global imagingsystem / OTCS;1 (b)(Algae supply polyps) with {sugar / carbohydrates / energy / food};(Algae supply polyps) with oxygen;Any credible suggestion why colour is an advantage to the polyp;2
3

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fairuzzarin reviewed this
Rated 5/5
could u pls also post unit 4
infecton immune system question?.
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