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UAV Communications

UAV Communications

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Published by Indranil Routh
Details on UAV Communications.
(** Reference Purpose only)

The UAV is an acronym for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, which is an aircraft with no pilot on board. UAVs can be remote controlled aircraft or can fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems.
Details on UAV Communications.
(** Reference Purpose only)

The UAV is an acronym for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, which is an aircraft with no pilot on board. UAVs can be remote controlled aircraft or can fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems.

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Published by: Indranil Routh on Jul 12, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/03/2013

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Unmanned Aircraft Communication ScenariosThe communications scenarios during the phases of anUnmanned Aircraft mission
 
Meaning of acronyms used
ATC
Air Traffic ControlA service provided for the purposes of: a) preventing collisions between aircraft andin the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions; and b) expediting andmaintaining an orderly flow of air traffic. - STANAG 4586
FIS-B
Flight Information Service - Broadcast
GCS
Ground Control System
LOS
Line-Of-Sight: maximum seperation = 5 km
R
Request
TWR
Airport Control Tower
UA
Unmanned Aircraft
VHF
Very High FrequencyFM analog radio communications in the 118 MHz to 132 MHz band
Notes
payload communications requirements (such as ground monitoring video data) areconsidered to be a separate issue from the command and control requirements
the GPS navigation signals received from the US GPS satellites at 1,575.42 MHz (thecivilian L1 signal) and at 1,227.60 MHz (the civilian L2 signal) are acknowledged, but areexcluded from the following discussion
for Beyond-Line-Of-Sight operation of the UA, we assume a Sense and Avoid system isfitted and operational in the UA, and that this system operates autonomously on theUA, with reports of what is sensed and being tracked included in the status reportswhich are transmitted each second
for video data transmission via a satellite link, we have suggested the use of MPEG-2video compression in which a 720 x 480 pixel frame at a rate of 30 frames per secondrequires a bit rate of about 4 Mbps.
EUROCONTROL, FAA and ICAO plan to equip high traffic densities areas with ATC datalinks for man and unmanned aircrafts by 2020. The ATC data link will require anavailability of 99.999% and must meet the 95th percentile one-way transit times shownin the following table (from Pelmoine):
 
Domain Threshold Objective
En Route 3.0 sec 1.5 secTower 3.0 sec 1.5 secTerminal 3.0 sec 1.5 sec
for US military systems, the proposed:
o
Line-Of-Sight data link frequency = 14,500 to 15,350 MHz
o
satellite communications uplink (satellite to Unmanned Aircraft) frequency = 30GHz to 31 GHz
o
satellite downlink (Unmanned Aircraft to satellite) frequency = 20.2 GHz to 21.2GHz
Communications systems requirements based on following scenarios
Here are the communications requirements we derive from the following scenarios.
communications requirements scenario reason / use
3 OFF COFDM video channels,each 8 MHz bandwidth, in an ISMband such as the 5.8 GHz ISMbandUA is in LOS of GCS
continuous situationawareness and followingwhile the UA is on therunway
in an emergencylanding, where the UA isremotely flown from theGCS3 OFF MPEG-2 video channels,each 4 Mbps bit rate, for videoinformation, on a SAT comms linkUA is BLOS of GCS9.6 kbps satellite links withbackupGSM 900 / 1800 modem linksallCHA = 4.8 kbps
download statusmessages (typically oneper second) and videoline scan data
upload flight planchanges / remoteoperation of UA

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