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O Level Pure Physic- Physics Definition List

# O Level Pure Physic- Physics Definition List

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09/10/2013

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Physics Definition-1-
Kinetic Model Of Matter:
Brownian Motion
is themovement of smokeparticles in a random andcontinuous motion in alldirection.Conclusion: ProvideEvidence that air moleculesare always in continuousand random motion.Temperature:It is the measure of thedegree of hotness of a body.
Heat
refers to the amountof thermal energy that iscontained in a body.Lower-fixed point aka IcePoint:Temperature of puremelting ice at standardatmospheric pressure.Upper-fixed point aka steampoint:Temperature of steam fromboiling water at standardatmospheric pressure.Transfer of Thermal Energy:
Conduction
is the processby which heat is transferredthrough a medium by thecollisions of one particle toanother.
Convection
is the processby which heat is transmittedfrom one place to anotherby the movement of heatedparticles in a gas or liquid.
is the process of heat transfer through theemission or absorption of electromagnetic wavesThermal Properties of Matter:Energy = power x time
Internal Energy
is thesum of kinetic energy andpotential energy of all theparticles.
Heat Capacity
(
) is theamount of heat required toraise the temperature of theobject by 1
o
c
.
Specific heat capacity
(
):Is the amount of heatrequired to raise thetemperature of 1kg of theobject by 1
o
c
Melting
is the process inwhich a substance changesfrom a solid state to a liquidstate without a change intemperature.
Boiling
is the process inwhich a substance changesfrom a liquid state to agaseous state without achange in temperature.
Latent heat of fusion
(l
)of a substance is thequantity of heat needed tochange a unit mass of thesubstance from solid toliquid without a change intemperature
.
Latent heat of vaporization(l
v
): of a substance is thequantity of heat needed tochange a unit mass of thesubstance from liquid to gaswithout a change intemperature.

Light:
Law 1
: The angle of incidence is = to the angleof reflection.
Law2
: The incident ray,reflected ray and normallies at the point of incidenceall lie on the same plane.
Refraction
: The bending of light when it passes fromone transparent medium toanother.
Law1
: The incident ray,refracted ray and normalthe point of incidence all lieon the same plane
Law2
: For 2 given media,

Q
θ
=

Q mc
θ
=

f
Q ml
=

v
Q ml
=

Physics Definition-2-
sinsin
in
=
(Less dense todenser medium)
sinsin
ni
=
(Denser to lessdense medium)(
n
= refractive index oroptical density)Refractive index of medium:C= speed of light 3x10
8
V= velocity of lightTotal internal reflection:Critical angle(
): is theangle of incidence for whichthe angle of refraction inthe optically dense mediumis 90
o
.Conditions for TIR:1. Light must travel from anoptically denser mediuminto optically less densemedium2. Angle of incidence (
)must be greater than thecritical angle(
).Thin converging lenses:
Focal length

is thedistance between the opticalcenter of the lens to thefocal point
Linear magnification (
m
)
is the ratio of the imageheight (h
i
) to the objectheight (h
o
).(Or the image distance (
)from the lens to the objectdistance (
u
) from the lens)General Wave Properties:Wave: Phenomenon whichenergy is transferredthrough vibrations.
Amplitude
(
a
):Maximum displacementof wave from restposition.
Wavelength
(
λ
)
:distance between 2identical points onsuccessive waves.
Frequency
(
): no of complete wave in onesecond.Period (
): time taken togenerate one completewave.Speed of wave: Distancemoved by any point onthe wave in one second.
Transverse wave
: arewaves in which thedirection of vibration isperpendicular to thedirection of wave motion.
Longitudinal waves
:are waves in which thedirection of vibration of the wave particles isparallel to the directionof wave motion.
Wave front
: imaginaryline on a wave that joinsall points which have thesame phase of vibration.Sound:
Compressions
: regionwhere air particles isslightly higher thannormal atmosphericpressure.
Rarefaction
: regionwhere air particles isslightly lower thannormal atmosphericpressure.
Echo
: reflected soundwave from large andhard surface.
Loudness
: dependenton amplitude.
Pitch
: dependent onfrequency of the wave

cnv
=

1sin
cn
=

io
hmh
=

vmu
=

1
f
=

Hence,
v
λ
=

Physics Definition-3-
Ultrasound
are sound thatare above the upper hearinglimit of the human ear.Kinematics:Scalar:
units
magnitude
no directionVector:
direction
units
no magnitude
Distance
(
) total lengthcovered by a moving object.
Displacement(
s
)
thedistance measured in aspecific direction.
Speed
is the rate of changeof distance with time.
Velocity
(
) is the rate of change of displacement withtime.
Acceleration
(a) is therate of change of velocity with time.
Terminal Velocity
:When an object falls at aconstant maximumvelocity, with anacceleration of 0m/s
2
, itis known as terminalvelocity.The Downward force isequal to the upwardforce, hence no netforce.Distance-time graph:
: speed of object.If it is a straight line, itis travelling at aconstant speed.Velocity-time/ speed-time graph:

object at rest(ii)

moving atconstant speed
Area under graph
equals to distancetravelled.In general, averagespeed is always areaunder graph divide bytime.Average speed=When acceleration isconstant in graph,
= Final velocityu=Initial velocity
= time taken forchangeDynamics:
Newton 1
st
Law
:When there is no net forceacting on a body, the bodywill remain at rest and abody in motion will continueits motion at constantvelocity.
Newton 2
nd
Law
:Net force action on a bodyis directly proportional tothe product of the object’smass and the acceleration itproduces.Resultant/net force:Resultant force producesacceleration
constant netforce=constant acceleration.
doubling net force willdouble acceleration produce
Doubling mass requires aforce twice as large toachieve the sameacceleration.

Speed
=
sVelocity
=

v ua
=

. .
areaunder graph

1. ( )2
averagespeed v u
= +

F
R
=
ma

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