(Less dense todenser medium)
(Denser to lessdense medium)(
= refractive index oroptical density)Refractive index of medium:C= speed of light 3x10
V= velocity of lightTotal internal reflection:Critical angle(
): is theangle of incidence for whichthe angle of refraction inthe optically dense mediumis 90
.Conditions for TIR:1. Light must travel from anoptically denser mediuminto optically less densemedium2. Angle of incidence (
)must be greater than thecritical angle(
).Thin converging lenses:
is thedistance between the opticalcenter of the lens to thefocal point
Linear magnification (
is the ratio of the imageheight (h
) to the objectheight (h
).(Or the image distance (
)from the lens to the objectdistance (
) from the lens)General Wave Properties:Wave: Phenomenon whichenergy is transferredthrough vibrations.
):Maximum displacementof wave from restposition.
:distance between 2identical points onsuccessive waves.
): no of complete wave in onesecond.Period (
): time taken togenerate one completewave.Speed of wave: Distancemoved by any point onthe wave in one second.
: arewaves in which thedirection of vibration isperpendicular to thedirection of wave motion.
:are waves in which thedirection of vibration of the wave particles isparallel to the directionof wave motion.
: imaginaryline on a wave that joinsall points which have thesame phase of vibration.Sound:
: regionwhere air particles isslightly higher thannormal atmosphericpressure.
: regionwhere air particles isslightly lower thannormal atmosphericpressure.
: reflected soundwave from large andhard surface.
: dependenton amplitude.
: dependent onfrequency of the wave