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O Level Pure Physic Static Electricity Notes

O Level Pure Physic Static Electricity Notes

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Published by: Zeneon on Jul 12, 2011
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12/17/2012

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Chargingbyinduction
Anotherwayofchargingisbyelectrostaticinduction.~neutral.objectcanbechargedwithachargedobjectwithouthavinganydirectcontact.
Procedure
o
WhenaQ.ositivelychargedperspexrodisbroughtn~a:toaneutralmetalcan,supportedonaninsulatedstand,Itm~~cesr;e(j8tivechargesonthes~den~aresttotherodandpositivechargesonthe
cart's
farSide(fig.CD).
chargedrodmetalcancangrounded
CD
insulatedstand
eBy
touchingthemetalcan,thecanisearthed,
i.e.,
sufficientelectronsflowupfromthegroundthroughthefingertothemetalcan.Theelectronsneutralizethepositivechargespresent(Fig.
@).
c)
Whenthefingerisremoved.onlyinducednegativechargeremained(Fig.
G».
inducedchargeremains
;'1I
o
Finally,whentherodisremoved,theremainingnegativechargesspreadthemselvesoutevenlyoverthemetalcan(Fig.®).
©
Perspexrodisnotneutralizedthoughitisheldbyhand.becauseitisaninsulator.
©
Positivechargecouldbeobtainedoverthecanbyusihganegativelychargedrod.Inthiscase.whenthecanisgroundedbytouchingit,electronsatthefarsideofthecanwillflowoutthroughthefingerstotheearth.
1
 
I
Example
11
Achargedsphereissuspended
by
aninsulatingthreadinside
a
metalcan.Theoutsideofthecanisearthed.Whichdiagramshowstheresultingchargesonthesphereandonthecan?
A~
Bb
w:
o~
~:
+
+
-
1JJ
=
+
o
-
Solution:
A.Astheexteriorofthecanisearthedthereshouldnotbeanyimbalancedchargesattheexteriorsurface.(ans)
.Example
21
TwochargedJ1)etalspheres,AandB,mountedoninsulatingsupportsarepositionedsothattheytouched.ArodcarryingapositiveelectricchargeisbroughtneartothemasshowninFig.
1.
Fig.1
Thespheresarenowmovedslightlyapartandthechargedrodisthenremoved.Showonfig.
2,
theresultingchargesonthespheres.Sphere
A
ismovedagainuntil
it
touches
B.
Describethemovementofchargethatoccurswhentheytouched.Solution;BringingapositivelychargedrodnearsphereAwouldinducenegativechargesonsphereA.SphereB,furtherfromtherod,willbeleftwithnetpositivecharges.SeparatingthesphereswillleavesphereAwithnegativechargesandsphereBwithpositivecharges.Bringingthespheresincontactagain,allowstheelectronstoflowfromspheresAtoB,andthespheresareonceagainneutral,
i.e.,
nonetcharges.(ans)
2
 
Applicationsofelectrostatics
Potentialelectrostatichazards
Lightning
0-
Thundercloudsarechargedwithverylargeamountofnegativechargesbecauseofthefrictionbetweencloudsandwind.
o
Thesehighlychargedcloudsionisetheairarounditandairbecomesaconductortothesecharges.Thechargesflowthroughtheairtotheearthatveryhighspeeds,givingofflightintheprocess(visible).Thesechargesnormallytaketheshortestpathpossiblebetweenthecloudandtheearth.Itisthereforedangeroustostandundertrees,swimintheseaorplayinanopenfieldduringathunderstorm.
o
Buildings,especiallytallones,arefrequentlysubjectedtolightningattacks.Ifabuildingisnotsuitably"protected",itsstructurewouldbeseverelydamagedintheprocess.Lightningconductorsarenowfittedontopofbuildingsforprotection.Whenthundercloudsarenearby,positivechargesareinducedonthelightningconductors.Theinducedpositivechargesremovetheelectronsfromthenearbyairandionisethesurroundingair.Thepositivelychargedairthenflowupwardstoneutralizethethundercloud.
positivechargesEBEEl
i
ElEEl
JI
from
air--....EElEElEElED
EB/'"
EEl
EB
'EDthickcopperconductormetalplateburied
in
theground
3

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