Track Circuit means an electrical circuit, provided to detect the presence of avehicle on a portion of track, the rails of which forming a part of the circuit.
The track circuit is used to detect the occupation or vacancy of thetrack portion by the condition (i.e. track relay is down or pick up) of track relay.
Principle of Working:
The portion of the Track which is to be Track circuited, is first provided withwooden or RCC sleepers and then the rails are insulated from the rest of theTrack by the provision of Insulated rail joints.At one end of the Track circuit feed is connected and at other end track relay isconnected as shown when the track portion is not occupied by trains, the fed isavailable for track relay and the relay is in energized condition.When a train occupies the track circuit portion, the axel & wheels shunt the trackmuch of the circuit current is passed through the wheels due to less resistivepath and very less current is available for track relay, which is not sufficientenough to pick up the relay.
Types of Track Circuits:
1. With respect to the Source a) D.C. Track circuitb) A.C. 50Hzc) AC 83
Hz2. With respect to type of functioning a) Closed Track circuitb) Open Track circuit.3. With respect to traction return current (In tractionarea)a) Single Rail Trackcircuit.b) Double Rail Trackcircuit .