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“Biomethanation of Dairy Waste WaterThrough UASB at Mesophilic TemperatureRange”
Monali Gotmare
, R.M.Dhoble
, A.P.Pittule
M.Tech student IV sem ,Department of Civil Engineering , G.H.Raisoni college of engineering, C.R.P.F. Gate No.3, Digdoh Hills, Hingna Road, Nagpur 440016, (India)E-mail:monaligotmare@yahoo.com.
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering , G.H.Raisoni college of engineering,C.R.P.F. Gate No.3, Digdoh Hills, Hingna Road, Nagpur 440016, (India)
Deputy General Manager,Lars Enviro Pvt.Ltd.,218, Bajaj Nagar South ambazariRoad,Nagpur,440010, (India)
In any dairy industry the quantity and characteristics of effluent is depending upon the extentof production activities, Pasteurisation to several milk products. Waste water generated indairy contains highly putrescible organic constituents and almost all the organic constituentsof dairy waste are easily biodegradable. The anaerobic digesters in first phase of treatment,which is followed by high rate aerobic treatment remains as the most common effluenttreatment method for dairy industry. The Indian dairy industries is stated to have the growthat more than15% & poised to cross the 150 Million tones per annum.The requirement for milk & milk products are keep growing in steady pace, making a significant impact on theIndian agriculture domain. In dairy industry waste water produces from the operations of  bottle, can and tanker washing, machinery and floor, the liquid waste in a dairy originatesfrom manufacturing process, utilities and service section.The paper present initiated study the removal efficiency and performance of UpflowAnaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor for treating dairy effluent and biogas generationestimation.
The aim of this work was to the study of a UASB reactor treating dairywastewater. The digester efficiency of treating dairy wastewater at organic loading rates wasstudied and its performance was assessed by monitoring pH, dissolved Chemical OxygenDemand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) andVolatile Fatty Acids (VFA) and biogas production.The reactor achieved COD, BOD,TSSremoval efficiency was observed 87.06%,94.50%,and 56.54% respectively. and theVFA/Alkalinity ratio varies from 0.28 to 0.43. The pH of reactor was found to be 6.9-7.1.The average gas production and methane gas conversion at optimum conditions was observedto be 179.35 m
/day and 125.55 m
/day, respectively. The overall methane composition wasnoticed to be 75% of the biogas.This study suggests that the post-treatment of dairy wastewater effluent is required to meet the safe effluent disposal standards.
: Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Dairy wastewater, UASB reactor, Methane.
Monali Gotmare* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIESVol No. 8, Issue No. 1, 001 - 009ISSN: 2230-7818@ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved.Page 1
1.0 Introduction
Water management in dairy industry iswell documented [1], but effluent production and disposal remain a problematic issue for the dairy industry.To enable the dairy industry to contributeto water conservation, an efficient andcost-effective effluent treatmenttechnology has to be developed. To thiseffect, anaerobic digestion offers a uniquetreatment option to the dairy industry. Notonly does anaerobic digestion reduce theCOD of an effluent, but little microbial biomass is produced. The biggestadvantage is energy recovery in the formof methane and up to 95% of the organicmatter in a waste stream can be convertedinto the biogas [2]. Many high-ratedigester designs are currently available andsome have successfully been used for thetreatment of dairy effluents.Lettinga andHulshoff-Pol [3] reported the use of full-scale up flow anaerobic sludge blanketdigesters in use worldwide.dairy industryuses 2 to 5 L of water per L of milk  processed [4].In recent years there has been a growinginterest in anaerobic treatment of wastewaters.Compared to aerobic growth,anaerobic fermentation produces much less biomass from the same amount of CODremoval[5]. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is a popular anaerobic reactor for both high and lowtemperature [6]. The UASB reactor is byfar the most widely used high rateanaerobic system for anaerobic sewagetreatment. In the case of a relatively lowstrength wastewater such as sewage, thehydraulic retention time rather thanorganic loading rate is the most important parameter determining the shape and thesize of the UASB reactor. The severalfavorable characteristics of anaerobic processes, such as low cost, operationalsimplicity, low biosolids production andconsiderable biogas production, together with suitable environmental conditionshave contributed to highlight anaerobicsystems for the treatment of sewage wastewater [7].Most of the literature data on the anaerobictreatment of dairy waste water incontinuous systems are not detailedenough to allow the calculation of theconversion to methane of the removedCOD. In order to obtain conversions tomethane of the removed COD above 70%in continuous UASB reactors themaximum load is around 3.0 g COD/l/dand the HRT must be above 12 h [8]. Thisvalue for the maximum load is inaccordance with other previous works onanaerobic treatment of dairy effluents [9,10, and 11]. Other works on anaerobictreatment of dairy effluents in continuousreactors have reported a significantdecrease in reactor performance or failuredue to build up of organic matter inside thereactors [12,13] although no numericaldata are presented for thisaccumulation.The intermittent feedoperating mode was recommended for complex wastewater, specifically for dairywaste water[14]. The intermittentoperation consists of an interruption of thereactor feed during a certain amount of time keeping the same (or a higher)operating temperature as during the feed period. In the feedless period time isallowed for the biological degradation of the adsorbed substrates thus eliminating or reducing the accumulation of organicmatter in the sludge bed. This operatingmode was successfully tested for dairywaste water [15].The aim of present work to access the performance of intermittent operation of mesophilic UASB reactor for treatingdairy effluent and biogas generationestimation.This assessment was made interms of COD removal and its conversionto methane and in terms of the stability of the reactors when operated at the higher loads.
Monali Gotmare* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIESVol No. 8, Issue No. 1, 001 - 009ISSN: 2230-7818@ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved.Page 2
1.1 Biogas production:
Typically biogasis composed of methane(50–75%), carbon dioxide (25-50%) andvarying quantities of water (H
O) andhydrogen sulphide (H
S) and Other compounds can also be found, especiallyin waste dump biogas: ammonia(NH
),hydrogen (H
) and carbonmonoxide (CO)[16].To use theenergyof the biogas,  biogas appliances, such as gas stoves or gas lampsare required. Both special biogasappliances or pressure-kerosene andLPG(Liquefied Petroleum Gas) equipment areadapted [17]. Besides cooking stoves andlamps, biogascan also be used to runrefrigerators,water heaters, radio,television, power engines or any other appliances when it has been transformed toelectricity. An average small-scale biogas plant can save up to 4.7 tonnes of carbondioxide emissions per year [18].In fact thecontribution of a methane molecule to thegreenhouse effect is 21 times greater thanthat of a carbon dioxide molecule [19].Therefore burning methane, even though producing CO
, reduces its impact on theenvironment.
2.0 Location of Industry
The dairy industry wastewater streamresulting from the washing operations atthe Bhandara Co-operative dairy is unit of Bhandara Zilla Dugdha Utpadak SahakariSangh Maryadit Bhandara and wasestablished in 25 July 2009 in JamniDabha, Bhandara Road, and Bhandara.Thedairy situated about 8 km from Bhandara.The unit processes produced 40,000 L of effluent every day. The averagecharacteristics of dairy industry are shownin Table 1.
Table 1
: Average characteristics of dairyindustry wastewater
3.0 Materials and Methods3.1 Reactor
The UASB reactor used in the presentstudy was made up of R.C.C.The workingvolume of the reactor was 120.12 m
. Thereactor consisted of five sampling ports;one inlet, which was further diverged intofour channels; one effluent outlet; two gasoutlets and a gas-solid-liquid separator.The feed loading rates were controlledwith peristaltic pumps (Siemens Company180 CMH).
Fig.1.Upflow Sludge Blanket Reactor(UASB) process flow diagramCharacteristics Typical value
Flow 165 to 200(m/d) pH 7.1-8.2Alkalinity 800 to1500(mg/L)Suspended Solids 1045 to 1800 (mg/L)Total DissolvedSolids1100 to 1600(mg/L)BOD 800 to 1000 (mg/L)COD 1400 to 2500 (mg/L)
Monali Gotmare* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIESVol No. 8, Issue No. 1, 001 - 009ISSN: 2230-7818@ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved.Page 3

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