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Periodic table quantum mechanics consistent

Periodic table quantum mechanics consistent

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Published by Bernard SCHAEFFER
The usual Mendeleev periodic tables of the chemical elements are already 97 % in accord with quantum mechanics. Three elements only do not fit correctly into it, in disagreement with the Pauli exclusion principle. In order to ensure coherence, it is put forward to place helium beside hydrogen into the s-block. Lutetium and lawrencium pertain to the d block of the transition metals and should not be in the f block with the rare earths or the actinoids. By replacing the lanthanoids (rare earths or lanthanides) and actinoids (actinides) boxes of the official IUPAC periodic table by those of lutetium and lawrencium, with helium placed beside hydrogen, the compact periodic table is 100 % quantum mechanics correct.
Bernard Schaeffer
The usual Mendeleev periodic tables of the chemical elements are already 97 % in accord with quantum mechanics. Three elements only do not fit correctly into it, in disagreement with the Pauli exclusion principle. In order to ensure coherence, it is put forward to place helium beside hydrogen into the s-block. Lutetium and lawrencium pertain to the d block of the transition metals and should not be in the f block with the rare earths or the actinoids. By replacing the lanthanoids (rare earths or lanthanides) and actinoids (actinides) boxes of the official IUPAC periodic table by those of lutetium and lawrencium, with helium placed beside hydrogen, the compact periodic table is 100 % quantum mechanics correct.
Bernard Schaeffer

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Published by: Bernard SCHAEFFER on Sep 13, 2008
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10/23/2011

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Periodic table of the chemical elements quantum mechanics consistent
Periodic table quantum mechanics consistent
10
s block f block d block p bloc
l
0 3 2 1
 Number of electrons in subshell2
m
+1 1
2
1…
14
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10
1 2 3 4 5
6
n spheri-calnodes:
2
elements3 nodes:
14
elementsTwo vibration nodes (parallels or meridians) :
10
elements per lineOne vibration node(parallel or meridian) :
6
elements per line
n
m=0
K 1
H
 
He
m=0m=±1He
L 2
Li Be B C N O F Ne
M 3
Na Mgm=0m=±1m=±2Al Si P S Cl A
N 4
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br K
O 5
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
P 6
Cs Ba
 
57 to 70
Lu
Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Q 7
Fr Ra 89 to 102
Lr
Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds
Uuu Uub
113
Uuq
115
Uuh
117
Uuo
Lanthanides and actinides (f bloc)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14
m=0m=±1m=±2 m=±3P 6 La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm YbQ 7 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No
 
Abstract
The official periodic table of the chemical elements is already 97 % in accord withquantum mechanics. Three elements only do not fit correctly into it, in disagreement withthe Pauli exclusion principle
1
.It is a great simplification that gives mathematical coherence the the periodic table. Aconsequence is that helium should be beside hydrogen in the s-block and not in the p-block as shown in most tables. Lutetium and lawrencium pertain to the d-block of the transitionmetals and should not be in the f-block with the rare earths or the actinoids (actinides). Byreplacing the lanthanoids (rare earths or lanthanides) and actinoids boxes of the officialIUPAC periodic table by those of lutetium and lawrencium, with helium placed besidehydrogen, the compact periodic table is 100 % correct according to the Schrödinger modelof the hydrogen atom completed with the Pauli exclusion principle.
History of the periodic table
The Mendeleev table is more than one century old. The number of columns was 6 in 1869,corrected to 8 in 1871, at the origin, based on atomic masses with twelve lines and eightcolumns, corresponding approximately to the s, p and d-blocks of quantum mechanics. Thetransition metals were moved separately and the corresponding column was replaced bythe rare gases after their discovery by Ramsay. Moseley replaced the mass with the atomicnumber as a classification criterion. The transuranians were discovered by Seaborg who placed the lanthanoids and actinoids separately, below the table, for reasons of compactness.Various table shapes may be found in the literature. On the usual ones, one line is a periodwith a total of 6. Columns are grouped approximately in four blocks named s, p, d, f,respectively for the values 1, 2, 3, 4 of the second quantum number 
. Each block containstheoretically an even number of elements (a consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle).They are given by the formula 2(2
+ 1) e.g. 2, 6, 10, 14. On the IUPAC official table
2
,shown on figure 1 there are 18 columns. Columns 4 to 12 form the d-group, the transitionmetals, formerly part of Mendeleev group VIII. Column VIII was then used for the raregases and renamed 18. The f-block (
= 3) is apart and contains the lanthanides and theactinides.Although updated many times, the periodic table has some anomalies shown on table below. There is a vacant box beside hydrogen and a strange discontinuity below yttrium Y.
 
Official periodic table (IUPAC)
1
2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18H
? He
Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl AK Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br KRb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I XeCs Ba 57 to
71 ?
Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At RnFr Ra 89 to
103 ?
Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds
Uuu Uub
113
Uuq
115
Uuh
117
Uuo
Lanthanides and actinides1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14
15La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm YbLr Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No
Lu
Simplified Schrödinger equation based model 
We shall apply the Schrödinger model of the hydrogen atom where the electronic structureof the atoms is not taken into account. The Schrödinger equation is indeed untractable for alarge number of electrons. The solution of the Schrödinger equation of the hydrogen atomis given by the orbitals defined by three quantum numbers n, corresponding to the energy,
, and m defining the spherical harmonics. It is not necessary to solve the Schrödinger equation to obtain them, simple considerations of symmetry suffice. The representationused here is a plane one showing only the nodes. The total number of nodes is given by the principal quantum number n. The simplest s state is spherical. There is only one possibility,with one node if n = 1. According to the Pauli exclusion principle, there are then twoquantum states 1s
1
and 1s
2
that may accept one electron each corresponding to twochemical elements, hydrogen and helium. For n = 2, there are two spherical nodes 2s
1
and2s
2
, giving rise again to 2 elements (Li and Be). It is also possible to have one sphericalnode and one plane node. Assuming an axial symmetry, this node may be equatorial or meridian. The equator, being insensitive to the sense of rotation gives rise to only onemode of vibration, 2p
1
and 2p
2
corresponding to 2 elements (B ,C). The rotation of themeridian may be detected ; therefore, there are two modes of vibration that may be rotatingclockwise or counterclockwise giving 4 quantum states 2p
3
, 2p
4
, 2p
5
and 2p
6
. We have thenfour elements more. Adding all these elements we have 2 + 2 + 2 + 4 = 10 elements for thetwo first shells ending with Mg. It may continue similarly until Ca, but then the levels arethen intermingled due to the electronic repulsion between the electrons, difficult tocompute. It is then necessary to know experimentally the order of the shells and subshells :1s-2s-2p-3s-3p4s3d-4p-5s-4d-4p-5p-6s-4f-5d-6p-7s-5f-6d. This represents the complete periodic table, indeed not very readable as such. Therefore, on the table below a graphicalrepresentation is used instead which is the above Mendeleev table slightly modified andcompleted with simplified drawings of the orbitals :

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