plants by either disposing o them in a compost or by spadingthem into the soil will deter pest buildup and eliminate ood andshelter or many insects and diseases. You can also reducepest buildup by controlling weeds in the garden, landscape,and adjoining borders.
A clear plastic sheet spread over the soil traps solar heat,which kills soilborne diseases, insects, nematodes, and manyweed seeds. The treatment should occur during summer’shigh air temperatures and intense solar radiation. Keep the soildamp during the solarization process, and keep the plastic inplace or several weeks. OSU Extension Fact Sheet F-7640explains soil solarization in more detail.
Timed Plantings and Harvests
Many crops may be planted or harvested early to missheavy pest inestations, while still achieving a ull yield. Plant-ing earlier than normal may involve the use o cold ramesor hot caps to protect seedlings orm the weather while theyget a head start growing. The crop then has a competitiveedge over pests. Early planting depends upon the gardenerknowing the emergence times and lie cycles o the pests tobe controlled.
When buying seeds or plants, try to choose those withbuilt-in resistance to diseases and nematodes. Sources orthis inormation include OSU Extension Fact Sheets, seedcatalogs, and plant and seed packages. It may be better toorego some production capability in avor o the increasedpest resistance, i you must make such a choice. During thegrowing season, stressed plants can lose their resistanceto pests, so be sure the crop has the water and nutrients itneeds. When shopping or seeds and plants, check the labelsor abbreviations similar to these, used to designate varioustypes o pest resistance or tolerance:A—Alternaria stem cankerALS—angular lea spotANTH—anthracnoseCMV—cucumber mosaic virusDM—downey mildewF—Fusarium (race 1)FF—Fusarium (races 1 & 2)L—leaspotMDM—maize dwar mosaicN—nematodeNCLB—northern corn lea blightPM—powdery mildewSCLB—southern corn lea blightSt—Stemphylium (gray lea spot)SW—Stewart’s wiltTLS—target lea spotTMV—tobacco mosaic virusV—Verticillium
When they are available, consider buying plants labeledas “certied” or grown and inspected under sterile or quaran-tined conditions. Certied plants may cost more than others,but the certication guarantees they are ree o diseases.Strawberries and potatoes are among crops which may beoered as certied plants.
Allelopathy, a natural chemical interaction among plants,has been the subject o much research recently. Allelopathyreers to stimulatory as well as inhibitory properties. A livingplant may release toxins, or in the case o decaying plant tis-sues, microorganisms may play a role in the release o thetoxin. The microbes may also modiy nontoxic compoundsinto toxic compounds. Black walnut trees and Johnson grassare among plants that have been shown to inhibit the growtho winter annual weeds and may oer some control o rootknot nematode.
Intercropping or “Companion Planting”
The premise o companion planting is that certain plantsrepel insects, or attract benecials that attack the insects.There is no signicant data to prove the value o companionplanting or intercropping, but it is thought that certain plantsmay produce substances which conuse insects, altering theirimpact as a pest. Some evidence also shows that plantingfowers among vegetables attracts benecial wasps seekingthe fowers’ nectar, and those wasps lay their eggs in thelarva o certain pest species. There is a popular but largelyinaccurate belie among gardeners that marigold will controlnematodes and other insects i planted among vegetables.Most marigold varieties do not have this capability. Only theFrench marigold (
) varieties, such as Nemagold,
tomato, potato, pepper, eggplant
onion, shallot, leek, chive, garlic
beet, Swiss chard, spinach
Cole Crop Family:
cabbage, caulifower, broccoli, brussels sprouts,bok choy, collards, kale, kohlrabi, mustard, radish,rutabaga, turnip
bean, pea, cowpea, peanut
carrot, celery, celeriac, parsley
cucumber, watermelon, cantaloupe, pumpkin,squash, gourds
lettuce, chicory, endive
Green Manure Crop Family:
hybrid sudangrass, buckwheat, soybean, cowpea,mung bean, garden pea, ava bean, ryegrass,rye grain, barley, oats, vetch, Austrian winter pea,clovers, greens
When buy-ing seeds orplants, try tochoose thosewith built-inresistance todiseases andnematodes.