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Quantum mechanics course qm004

Quantum mechanics course qm004

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Published by jlbalb

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Published by: jlbalb on Sep 14, 2008
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06/16/2009

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1EsakiDiod
 
Whentheconcentrationofimpurityatomsinapn-diodeisveryhigh,the depletionlayerwidthisreducedtoabout10nm.Classically,acarriermushaveanenergyatleastequaltothepotential-barrierheightinordertocrosthejunction.However,quantummechanicsindicatesthatthereisanonzerprobabilitythataparticlemightpenetratethroughabarrierasthinasthat indicatedabove.Thisphenomenoniscalledtunneling,andbecauseofthis,theshigh-impuritydensityp-ndevicesarecalledtunneldiodes,orEsakidiodes
 
Theconditionthatthebarrierbelessthan10nmthickisanecessarybut notasucientconditionfortunneling.Itisalsorequiredthatoccupiedenergy statesexistonthesidefromwhichtheelectronstunnelandthatallowedemptstatesexistontheotherside. 
 
Theenergy-banddiagramforaheavily-dopeddiodeunderopencircuiandreversebiasconditionsisshownbelowFigure1:Esakidiode 
 
aUnderzero-biasconditions,therearenolledstatesononesideofthe  junctionwhichareatthesameenergyastheemptyallowedstatesontheother side.Hence,therecanbenoowofchargeineitherdirectionacrossthejunction, andthecurrentiszero,anobviouslycorrectconclusionforanopen-circuited diode. bIfareversebiasisaapplied,theheightofthebarrierisincreasedabove theopen-circuitvalue 
.Hence,then-sidelevelsmustshiftdownwardwitrespecttothep-sidelevels.Inthiscase,therearesomeenergystatesinthe valencebandonthep-sidethatlieatthesamelevelasallowedemptystateintheconductionbandofthen-side.Hence,theseelectronsmighttunnelfrom theptothen-side,givingrisetothereversediodecurrent.Asthemagnitude ofthereversebiasincreases,theheavily-shadedaregrowsinsize,causingthe reversecurrenttoincrease,asshownbysection1intheFigurebelowFigure2: 
I
characteristics. 
 
Considernowtheforwardbiascasewhenthepotentialbarrierisdecreasebelow 
.Then-sidelevelshiftsupwardwithrespecttothoseonthep-sideandtheenergy-bandpictureforthissituationisindicatedinFigure3. 
 
Figure3:ForwardBias 

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