Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
8Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Quezon, An Opportunistic Nationalist? By William Gueraiche

Quezon, An Opportunistic Nationalist? By William Gueraiche

Ratings: (0)|Views: 5,499|Likes:

More info:

Published by: Manuel L. Quezon III on Sep 14, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

03/07/2013

pdf

text

original

 
QUEZON,
 
AN
 
OPPORTUNISTIC
 
NATIONALIST
 
?
 
*
 
This paper seeks to examine the origins of Quezon's nationalism,which can be re-evaluated in the light of his archives in the Philippine National Library. Quezon was a politician driven by ambition. Adept at a double language, this "opportunist nationalist" appeared to usethe issue of independence to further his career. But his nationalismwas not reducible to the call for independence. Quezon was aware of his role in the construction of a new nation, which he defined in thebroadest possible sense. Quezon came from the growing middle classand considered himself to be the link between ordinary people and theilustrados (upper class). In his mind, the Philippine nation should havehad neither social nor religious boundaries. In this regard, Quezonwas unlike the generation of the revolution and also different from theWestern nationalists. As head of state, Quezon had a peculiar relationship with his countrymen: he was at once familiar and distant,not unlike the pre-colonial datus. All things considered, Quezon'sbrand of nationalism more closely resembles the German conceptionof the nation (which emphasises the right of blood) than the Americanor the French conception (based on the right of soil).
Introduction
 
Manuel
 
Quezon,
 
the
 
first
 
president
 
of
 
the
 
Philippine
 
Commonwealth
 
(1935
1944),
 
remains
 
in
 
the
 
collective
 
memory
 
a
 
nationalist
 
hero
 
whose
 
name
 
is
 
often
 
associated
 
with
 
independence.
 
The
 
concept
 
of
 
a
ʺ
nation
ʺ
 ,
 
understood
 
in
 
the
 
Western
 
sense,
 
includes
 
independence
 
and
 
the
 
existence
 
of
 
a
 
nation
state.
 
Since
 
the
 
pioneering
 
work
 
of
 
Benedict
 
Anderson
 
in
 
1983,
1
 
academics
 
have
 
questioned
 
the
 
idea
 
of
 
the
 
nation,
 
which
 
is
 
an
ʺ
imagined
 
community
ʺ
 ,
 
a
 
mental
 
representation.
 
It
 
is
 
a
 
human
 
grouping,
 
linked
 
 by
 
a
 
common
 
vision,
 
as
 
well
 
as
 
outward
 
signs
 
such
 
as
 
language,
 
religion
 
and
 
other
 
cultural
 
practices,
 
that
 
expresses
 
the
 
*
 
William
 
Guéraiche
 
is
 
an
 
historian.
 
After
 
defending
 
his
 
doctorate,
 
he
 
taught
 
colonial
 
history
 
at
 
the
 
Sorbonne
 
and
 
Geopolitics
 
at
 
the
 
University
 
of
 
Marne
 
la
 
Vallée.
 
He
 
spent
 
three
 
years
 
in
 
Manila
 
where
 
he
 
worked
 
on
 
Manuel
 
Quezon
ʹ
s
 
archives
 
and
 
published
 
 Manuel
 
Quezon.
 
Les
 
Philippines
 
de
 
la
 
décolonisation
 
à
 
la
 
démocratisation
 
(Paris:
 
Maisonneuve
 
et
 
Larose)
 
in
 
2004.
 
He
 
also
 
edited
 
Les
 
structures
 
 politiques
 
traditionnelles
 
à
 
l’épreuve
 
de
 
la
 
démocratie
 
en
 
 Asie
 
du
 
Sud
est
 ,
 
a
 
special
 
issue
 
of
 
Péninsule
 
(Paris:
 
Olizane)
 
in
 
2004.
 
1
 
ANDERSON,
 
Benedict.
 
1983.
 
Imagined
 
Communities:
 
Reflections
 
on
 
the
 
Origin
 
and
 
Spread
 
of 
 
Nationalism
.
 
London:
 
Verso.
 
Pilipinas #42 March 2004
 
Pilipinas #42 March 2004
 
47
desire
 
to
 
live
 
together
 
in
 
a
 
common
 
territory.
 
If
 
Quezon
 
emerged
 
as
 
a
 
major
 
nationalist
 
leader
 
in
 
the
 
same
 
manner
 
as
 
Mahatma
 
Gandhi
 
or
 
Sukarno,
 
it
 
was
 
 because
 
he
 
not
 
only
 
advocated
 
independence
 
for
 
his
 
country
 
 but
 
also
 
participated
 
in
 
the
 
elaboration
 
of
 
the
 
Philippine
 
nation.
 
The
 
revolution
 
of
 
1896
 
is
 
taken
 
as
 
evidence
 
of
 
the
 
existence
 
of
 
a
 
Philippine
 
nation
 
 before
 
the
 
arrival
 
of
 
the
 
Americans.
 
While
 
it
 
is
 
clear
 
that
 
the
 
awareness
 
of
 
some
 
kind
 
of
 
identity
 
had
 
spread
 
among
 
the
 
ilustrados
 
during
 
the
 
century,
 
it
 
remains
 
to
 
 be
 
seen
 
whether
 
the
 
rest
 
of
 
the
 
population,
 
notably
 
the
 
lowest
 
classes,
 
shared
 
their
 
vision.
 
In
 
the
 
1970S,
 
historians
 
such
 
as
 
 John
 
Schumacher
 
examined
 
the
 
roots
 
of
 
nationalism
 
among
 
the
 
Philippine
 
elite
2
.
 
The
 
next
 
generation
 
gave
 
more
 
emphasis
 
to
 
history
ʺ
from
 
 below
ʺ
:
 
Reynaldo
 
Ileto
 
attempted
 
to
 
interpret
 
the
 
revolution
 
as
 
popular
 
movement,
3
 
 but
 
his
 
conclusions
 
are
 
far
 
from
 
definitive.
 
Glenn
 
Anthony
 
May,
 
for
 
instance,
 
has
 
questioned
 
the
 
essence
 
of
 
this
 
nationalism
 
and
 
proposed
 
that
 
the
ʺ
revolt
 
of
 
the
 
masses
ʺ
consisted
 
of
 
little
 
more
 
than
 
peasants
 
fighting
 
on
 
 behalf
 
of
 
their
 
landlords
 
within
 
the
 
framework
 
of
 
patron/client
 
ties.
 
According
 
to
 
May,
 
it
 
is
 
questionable
 
whether
 
the
 
masses
 
indeed
ʺ
had
 
a
 
common
 
commitment
 
to
 
independence
 
and
 
a
 
shared
 
sense
 
of
 
a
 
Filipino
 
nation….
ʺ
4
 
The
 
celebration
 
of
 
the
 
revolution
 
(and
 
the
 
controversy
 
 between
 
May
 
and
 
Ileto
 
about
 
Bonifacio)
5
 
showed
 
that
 
Philippine
 
nationalism
 
is
 
still
 
a
 
point
 
at
 
issue.
 
Taking
 
May
ʹ
s
 
position
 
as
 
a
 
starting
 
point,
 
it
 
is
 
clear
 
that
 
the
 
Philippine
 
nation
 
was
 
still
 
under
 
construction
 
during
 
American
 
colonisation.
 
This
 
assertion
 
is
 
 based
 
on
 
Anderson
ʹ
s
 
studies
 
as
 
well
 
as
 
on
 
European
 
historians
ʹ
work.
6
 
It
 
is
 
now
 
agreed,
 
for
 
example
 
that
 
the
 
French
 
nation
 
appeared
 
at
 
the
 
end
 
of
 
the
 
nineteenth
 
century,
 
even
 
if
 
an
 
independent
 
state
 
existed
 
for
 
many
 
centuries
 
 before
 
then.
 
Quezon
ʹ
s
 
style
 
of
 
nationalism
 
cannot
 
 be
 
reduced
 
to
 
the
 
call
 
for
 
immediate
 
independence,
 
and
 
an
 
analysis
 
of
 
his
 
position
 
on
 
the
 
independence
 
process
 
is
 
not
 
sufficient.
 
What
 
kind
 
of
 
nation
 
did
 
he
 
want
 
to
 
 build
 
within
 
the
 
framework
 
of
 
the
 
Philippine
 
state
 
?
 
2
 
See
 
his
 
thesis:
 
S
CHUMACHER
 ,
 
 John
 
N.
 
1973.
 
The
 
Propaganda
 
 Movement,
 
1880
1895:
 
The
 
Creators
 
of 
 
a
 
Filipino
 
Consciousness,
 
the
 
 Makers
 
of 
 
Revolution
.
 
Manila:
 
Solidaridad
 
Pub.
 
House.
 
(revised
 
edition
 
1997.
 
The
 
Propaganda
 
 Movement,
 
1880
1895.
 
Quezon
 
City:
 
ADMU
 
Press)
 
and
 
his
 
essays:
 
1991.
 
The
 
 Making
 
of 
 
a
 
Nation.
 
Essay
 
on
 
the
 
Nineteenth
Century
 
Filipino
 
Nationalism
.
 
Quezon
 
City:
 
ADMU
 
Press.
 
3
 
I
LETO
 ,
 
Reynaldo
 
C.
 
1979.
 
Pasyon
 
and
 
Revolution.
 
Popular
 
 Movements
 
in
 
the
 
Philippines,
 
1840
1910
.
 
Quezon
 
City:
 
Ateneo
 
de
 
Manila
 
University
 
Press.
 
4
 
M
AY
 ,
 
Glenn
 
Anthony.
 
1987.
 
 A
 
Past
 
Recovered.
 
Quezon
 
City:
 
New
 
Day
 
Publisher,
 
p.
 
19
 
and
 
p.
 
145
 
on
 
patron/clients
 
ties
 
during
 
the
 
revolution.
 
5
 
See
 
M
AY
 ,
 
Glenn
 
Anthony.
 
1996.
 
Inventing
 
a
 
Hero.
 
The
 
Posthumous
 
Re
creation
 
of 
 
 A.
 
Bonifacio
.
 
Madison:
 
University
 
of
 
Wisconsin;
 
I
LETO
 ,
 
Reynaldo
 
C.
 
1998.
 
Filipinos
 
and
 
Their
 
Revolution.
 
Event,
 
Discourse,
 
and
 
Historiography
.
 
Quezon
 
City:
 
Ateneo
 
de
 
Manila
 
University
 
Press,
 
pp.
 
203
237;
 
and
 
C
HURCHILL
 ,
 
Benardita
 
Reyes
 
(ed).
 
1997.
 
Determining
 
the
 
Truth.
 
The
 
Story
 
of 
 
 Andres
 
Bonifacio
 ,
 
Manila:
 
Manila
 
Studies
 
Association,
 
National
 
Commission
 
for
 
Culture
 
and
 
the
 
Arts,
 
Philippine
 
National
 
Historical
 
Society.
 
6
 
For
 
a
 
general
 
introduction
 
to
 
the
 
question,
 
cf.
 
the
 
synthesis
 
of
 
CABANEL,
 
Patrick.
 
1996.
 
La
 
question
 
nationale
 
au
 
XI 
 
s
.
 
Paris:
 
La
 
Découverte.
 
Quezon, an Opportunistic Nationalist ?
 
Pilipinas #42 March 2004
 
48
Nationalist
 
or
 
opportunist
 
?
 
Quezon
 
was
 
a
 
politician
 
with
 
considerable
 
ambition.
 
It
 
is
 
not
 
unlikely
 
that
 
he
 
saw
 
himself
 
at
 
the
 
head
 
of
 
the
 
state
 
apparatus
 
as
 
soon
 
as
 
he
 
entered
 
politics.
 
As
 
a
 
politician,
 
he
 
was
 
adept
 
at
 
double
 
language.
 
In
 
public
 
he
 
maintained
 
that
 
his
 
only
 
wish
 
was
 
American
 
withdrawal,
 
 but
 
 behind
 
the
 
scenes
 
he
 
never
 
acted
 
to
 
hasten
 
the
 
independence
 
process
 
when
 
he
 
did
 
not
 
personally
 
 benefit.
 
His
 
mandate
 
as
 
resident
 
commissioner
 
illustrates
 
the
 
discrepancy
 
 between
 
discourse
 
and
 
reality.
 
From
 
the
 
time
 
that
 
Quezon
 
arrived
 
in
 
Washington
 
in
 
1909,
 
the
 
31
year
 
old
 
appeared
 
to
 
 be
 
riding
 
a
 
hard
 
anti
imperialist
 
line.
 
Quezon
 
was
 
unyielding
 
on
 
what
 
he
 
called
ʺ
the
 
sacred
 
cause
ʺ
.
 
The
 
denunciation
 
of
 
American
 
colonial
 
policy
 
had
 
its
 
intellectual
 
roots
 
in
 
the
 
anti
imperialist
 
ideology.
 
When
 
he
 
arrived
 
in
 
Washington,
 
Quezon
 
sought
 
the
 
support
 
of
 
the
 
Anti
Imperialist
 
League,
 
created
 
at
 
the
 
time
 
of
 
annexation
 
of
 
the
 
Spanish
 
colonies
 
in
 
1898.
7
 
The
 
young
 
Commissioner
 
had
 
maintained
 
a
 
correspondence
 
with
 
Erving
 
Winslow,
 
its
 
Secretary
 
General.
 
Winslow,
 
a
 
retired
 
 businessman,
 
gave
 
complete
 
support
 
to
 
the
 
Philippine
 
cause,
 
to
 
the
 
extent
 
that
 
his
 
young
 
protégé
 
ran
 
for
 
the
 
nacionalista
 
party,
 
in
 
favour
 
of
 
immediate
 
independence
 
for
 
the
 
archipelago.
 
In
 
a
 
letter
 
dated
 
25
 
March
 
1911,
 
Winslow
 
offered
 
Quezon
 
his
 
help
 
in
 
drafting
 
his
 
speeches.
8
 
In
 
the
 
first
 
years
 
of
 
their
 
collaboration
 
it
 
would
 
appear
 
as
 
though
 
the
 
positions
 
of
 
the
 
two
 
men
 
were
 
completely
 
interchangeable.
 
His
 
speeches
 
leave
 
no
 
doubt
 
that
 
Quezon
 
was
 
unyielding
 
on
 
the
 
issue
 
of
 
independence.
 
But
 
from
 
the
 
 beginning
 
there
 
were
 
inconsistencies
 
 between
 
Quezon
ʹ
s
 
discourse
 
and
 
his
 
political
 
decisions.
 
On
 
6
 
February
 
1910,
 
the
 
 progresistas
 
addressed
 
a
 
petition
 
to
 
president
 
William
 
Taft
 
asking
 
for
 
a
 
declaration
 
according
 
to
 
which
 
the
 
United
 
States
 
would
 
agree
 
to
 
grant
 
Philippine
 
independence.
 
Quezon
 
 believed
 
that
 
autonomy,
 
through
 
the
 
institution
 
of
 
a
 
Philippine
 
senate,
 
would
 
have
 
 been
 
a
 
compromise
 
acceptable
 
to
 
the
 
Republican
 
administration,
 
and
 
he
 
wrote
 
to
 
the
 
President
 
in
 
this
 
spirit
 
on
 
29
 
March
 
1910.
9
 
But
 
Benito
 
Legarda,
 
the
 
second
 
Resident
 
Commissioner,
 
refused
 
to
 
support
 
his
 
colleague
 
in
 
this
 
undertaking.
 
Quezon
 
decided
 
to
 
align
 
himself
 
with
 
the
 
independent
ist
 
stance
 
in
 
the
 
following
 
month.
 
In
 
his
 
first
 
speech
 
to
 
Congress,
 
he
 
added
 
a
 
proposition
 
on
 
the
 
neutralisation
 
of
 
the
 
archipelago.
 
Through
 
the
 
correspondence
 
that
 
he
 
maintained
 
with
 
Winslow,
 
it
 
is
 
apparent
 
that
 
Quezon
ʹ
s
 
public
 
position
 
regarding
 
immediate
 
independence
 
was
 
more
 
nuanced
 
in
 
private.
 
In
 
the
 
early
 
part
 
of
 
1911,
 
Quezon
 
let
 
it
 
 be
 
known
 
in
 
Congress
 
that
 
a
 
status
 
of
 
autonomy
 
for
 
the
 
colony
 
was
 
a
 
solution
 
that
 
might
 
 be
 
entertained.
 
Winslow,
 
worried
 
about
 
these
 
rumours,
 
wrote
 
Quezon
 
about
 
them
 
on
 
28
 
February,
10
 
 but
 
did
 
not
 
receive
 
a
 
reply.
 
He
 
wrote
 
again
 
on
 
4
 
March,
 
asking
 
7
 
TOMPKINS,
 
E.
 
Berkeley.
 
1970.
 
 Anti
imperialism
 
in
 
the
 
United
 
States:
 
The
 
Great
 
Debate
 
1890
1920
.
 
Philadelphia:
 
University
 
of
 
Pennsylvania.
 
8
 
The
 
National
 
Library
 
of
 
Manila
 
(N.L.),
 
Quezon
 
presidential
 
papers
 
(Q.P.),
 
Anti
Imperialist
 
League,
 
Box
 
(B.)
 
5.
 
9
 
Cited
 
 by
 
GRIPALDO,
 
Rolando
 
M.
 
1994
 
 
The
 
Quezon
Winslow
 
Correspondence
 
and
 
Other
 
Essays
 ,
 
Manila
 
:
 
De
 
La
 
Salle
 
University,
 
p.
 
9.
 
Gripaldo
 
has
 
compiled
 
a
 
selection
 
from
 
general
 
correspondence
 
and
 
presidential
 
archives.
 
10
These letters are in the presidential archives (N.L.), in the series on General Correspondenceordered chronologically.
Quezon, an Opportunistic Nationalist ?

Activity (8)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
crisjava liked this
Francis Pasion liked this
jb68 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->