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VIRTUAL STUDY FOR THE INDIFFERENT ATTRIBUTE OF KANO

VIRTUAL STUDY FOR THE INDIFFERENT ATTRIBUTE OF KANO

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Kano model is famous for its two dimensional voice capturing capacity. This model is useful for customer needs analysis for product development. Must-be, One-dimensional, Attractive and Indifferent are respectively shown their priority of Kano model in product. Must-be is needed for market entry and one-dimensional for increase the satisfaction. Attractive attribute increase the satisfaction of the consumers, when it is appended, the indifferent attribute does not affect consumer and customer satisfaction in any way. If indifferent attribute keep nil in product, it is better for business, but real life situation threshold number of attribute is present in the product of the business. Indifferent attributes should properly control, otherwise, production cost will be increased. As an example in bicycle, handle shape can be curve or straight or any shape. Handle shape may be indifferent for user. Straight shape handle of bicycle has been studied in this paper for indifferent attributes for determination virtual customer. For this purpose, a survey is done according to Kano model for real life opinion. Fuzzy system is well-designed to determine probability from these opinions. This probability acts as an input of Monte Carlo simulation. This simulation gives a virtual respondent for the indifferent attribute. The validation and efficiency of method is certainly significant for product development team for selection survey sampling than statistical method.
Kano model is famous for its two dimensional voice capturing capacity. This model is useful for customer needs analysis for product development. Must-be, One-dimensional, Attractive and Indifferent are respectively shown their priority of Kano model in product. Must-be is needed for market entry and one-dimensional for increase the satisfaction. Attractive attribute increase the satisfaction of the consumers, when it is appended, the indifferent attribute does not affect consumer and customer satisfaction in any way. If indifferent attribute keep nil in product, it is better for business, but real life situation threshold number of attribute is present in the product of the business. Indifferent attributes should properly control, otherwise, production cost will be increased. As an example in bicycle, handle shape can be curve or straight or any shape. Handle shape may be indifferent for user. Straight shape handle of bicycle has been studied in this paper for indifferent attributes for determination virtual customer. For this purpose, a survey is done according to Kano model for real life opinion. Fuzzy system is well-designed to determine probability from these opinions. This probability acts as an input of Monte Carlo simulation. This simulation gives a virtual respondent for the indifferent attribute. The validation and efficiency of method is certainly significant for product development team for selection survey sampling than statistical method.

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Published by: Dr. Engr. Md Mamunur Rashid on Jul 14, 2011
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1. INTRODUCTION
Product development cycle that consists of StrategicGoal, Customer Needs Assessment, ProductConceptualization, Product Realization, and Satisfaction.All technical issues of Product Conceptualization andProduct Realization are handled after assessing thecustomer needs for satisfied the consumer [1-3].Therefore, the success of a product development process(i.e., desired customer satisfaction) is sensitive to thecustomer needs assessment process. Absolutely howmany respondents should be asked to correctly assess forindifferent attribute. If the answer of this question notknown beforehand, the product development team mightmake a decision jeopardizing the subsequent processesof product development. For this purpose, exclusivelynumber of respondents of well known indifferentattribute of bicycle is established from this study.Specified attribute, (i.e. well known indifferent attribute)is used for making standard for determinationrespondents/ survey sampling, then this standard numberor benchmark can be applied for determination othersindifferent attribute (unknown) or other attribute [10][12] by product development team. The purpose of thepaper appears to be the use of a Kano model-basedcustomer needs simulation to assure that a contemplatedproduct will serve a useful purpose, and result may becommercially successful. In this paper, a case study ispresented for this purpose that may be implemented inthe commercial purpose. In this paper also describes arationale to develop an electronic tool to assist ineliciting customer requirement according to Kano model .For this purpose, the Kano model is study in section 2.Section 3 illustrates the simulation equations. Section 4explains a case study about the indifferent attribute.Section 5 concludes.
2. Kano Method
The relationship between product attributes, i.e.X-axis and customer satisfaction, i.e. Y-axis defines inKano model [4], which is shown in Fig.1.
 Abstract
-
Kano model is famous for its two dimensional voice capturing capacity. Thismodel is useful for customer needs analysis for product development. Must-be,One-dimensional, Attractive and Indifferent are respectively shown their priority of Kanomodel in product. Must-be is needed for market entry and one-dimensional for increasethe satisfaction. Attractive attribute increase the satisfaction of the consumers, when it isappended, the indifferent attribute does not affect consumer and customer satisfaction inany way. If indifferent attribute keep nil in product, it is better for business, but real lifesituation threshold number of attribute is present in the product of the business. Indifferent attributes should properly control, otherwise, production cost will beincreased. As an example in bicycle, handle shape can be curve or straight or any shape. Handle shape may be indifferent for user. Straight shape handle of bicycle has beenstudied in this paper for indifferent attributes for determination virtual customer. For this purpose, a survey is done according to Kano model for real life opinion. Fuzzy system iswell-designed to determine probability from these opinions. This probability acts as aninput of Monte Carlo simulation. This simulation gives a virtual respondent for theindifferent attribute
.
The validation and efficiency of method is certainly significant for  product development team for selection survey sampling than statistical method.
Keywords: Virtual Study, Indifferent Attribute, Kano Model
 
VIRTUAL STUDY FOR THE INDIFFERENT ATTRIBUTE OF KANOMODEL
Md. Mamunur Rashid
 
1
 
1
Bangladesh Institute of Management, 4, Sobhanbag, Mirpur Road, Dhaka-1207 (bim.org.bd), Bangladesh
mamun87245@gmail.com
 
 
Fig. 1:
 
Kano modelTo know whether or not a given attribute is Attractive,Must-be, One-dimensional, Indifferent or Reverse, it isimportant to fill out a
two-dimensional
 
questionnaire
 prepared for each attribute under consideration. One iscalled
 functional answer 
(i.e., the answer when theattribute is working/present) and the other is called
dysfunctional answer 
(i.e., the answer when the attributeis not working/not present). A respondent needs toanswer at the same time both from functional side andthe dysfunctional side. The combinations of answers areshown in Table 1.Table 1: Kano EvaluationFunctionalAnswer(
 x
i
)Dysfunctional Answer (
 y
 j
)Like Must-be Neutral Live-with DislikeLike Q A A A OMust-be R I I I MNeutral R I I I MLive-with R I I I MDislike R R R R QA=Attractive, I=Indifferent, M=Must-be,O=One-dimensional, Q=Questionable, and R=ReverseThis method is modified with computer fordetermination virtual customer for specific indifferentattribute.
3. SIMULATION EQUATIONS
Simulation method is formulated in the followingway by using Monte Carlo simulation principle [5-12].
Inputs:
 E
= (E 
1
 ,…, En)
//Event Vector
 Pr(E)
= (Pr (E 
1
 ),…, Pr (E 
n
))
//Event ProbabilityVector
 N 
//Number of Trials
Calculate:
CPr (E 
i
) =Pr (E 
1
 ) +…+Pr (E 
i
 ), i=1,…, n
  //Cumulative Probability of Events
 For j=1,…,
 N  Do
 
 j
 
[0, 1]
// 
 j
is a random number in the interval[0, 1]
 If r 
 j
  
CPr (E 
1
) Then S
 j
= E 
1
 
OtherwiseFor 
 
i=2,…, n
  If CPr (E 
i-1
) <r 
 j
  
CPr (E 
i
) Then S
 j
= E 
i
 A stopping rule is applied for the Monte CarloSimulation, than the cumulative probability of the lastevent
Sn
is 1,
i.e.
C
Pr (Sn) =1
; then automatically stopthe simulation
.
The proposed simulation process isfollowing :Step 1: Choices of FA and DFA of unknown customer,
FA,or DFA
{Like (L), Must-be (M), Neutral (N), Live-with(LW), Dislike (D)}
 Step 2: Generate a set of random inputsStep 3. Simulation of dysfunctional answer of customerindependentlyStep 4. Simulation of functional answer of customerindependentlyStep 5. Simulation of customer evaluation by usingcombination of FA and DFAAccording to step 2, a set of random inputs has beengenerated by using the formula=RAND () in a cell of Microsoft office Excel.
4. VIRTUAL RESPONDENTS DETERMINATION
A case is considered in Fig. 2 for virtual respondentsdetermination. According to Fig.2, there is aquestionnaire regarding a product (bicycle) attribute(handle is straight in shape). It is well-known answer of a
respondent would be ―must
-
 be‖ from functional side (i.e.,
the bicycle handle should straight in shape) and
―must
-
 be‖ from dysfunctional side (i.e., the bicycle
handle should straight in shape). This combination of answer (must-be, must-be) yields an
―Indifferent‖
attribute according to Kano Evaluation Table 1. In reality,respondents exhibit a rather fuzzy behavior andsometimes answer different than the expectation. Forexample, see the frequency of the answers of 27respondents shown in Fig.2. As a result, some
respondents answer makes the attribute ―Indifferent‖some others make it ―Attractive‖ and s
o on. This raises afundamental question that is how many respondentsshould be requested to know for certain that the specifiedattribute is an Indifferent attribute or not.This question can be answered using the method .Thefirst step is to input the probability vectors of functionalanswers and dysfunctional answers determine theprobability vectors of functional/ dysfunctional answersthe following procedure can be used.As it is seen from the case shown in Fig.3, fromfunctional side, the respondents
are ―quite
-
likely‖ to
choose
Like
‖, ―some
-
likely‖ to choose ―Must
-be,Neutral and Live-
with‖ and ―less
-
likely‖ to choose
Dislike
. On the other hand, from the dysfunctional side,
the respondents are ―quite
-
likely‖ to choose ―
Live-with
 
―some
-
likely‖ to c
hoose
Dislike and Neutral
and
―less
-
likely‖ to choose ―
Like and Must-be
. Althoughboth cases must-be should be become
quite-like
, wherein functional answer must be becomes some-likely, anddysfunctional side becomes
―must
-
 be‖
unexpectedless-likely.
 
 Fig.2: The questionable sampling in Survey
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.250 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
   M  e  m   b  e  r  s   h   i  p   V  a   l  u  e
Pr
Less-likely some-likely quite-likely most-likely
 Fig. 3: Defining linguistic likelihoods by fuzzy numbers
These linguistic likelihoods (―most
-
likely‖,―some
-
likely‖, ―less
-
likely‖, and so on) can be
transformed into numerical probability using fuzzylogic. Ullah and Tamaki, 2011
[13]
have afforded afuzzy logic method, which is used here. Figure 3illustrates the fuzzy numbers defining the linguistic
likelihoods ―most
-
likely‖, ―quite
-
likely‖, ―some
-
likely‖,and ―less
-
likely.‖
 From the linguistic likelihoods shown in Fig.3, theaverage value and lower and upper limits of aredetermined using centroid method [
14]
and
-cuts at
=0.5, respectively. The results are shown in Table 2.Table 2. Numerical probability of linguistic likelihoodsLinguistic likelihoodsPrLower limit Upper limit Averagemost-likely 0.85 1 0.9quite-likely 0.5 0.85 2/3some-likely 0.15 0.5 1/3less-likely 0 0.15 0.1Table 3 shows the probabilities of functionalanswers for average and worst-case scenarios. Foraverage scenario the average probabilities of linguisticlikelihoods (shown in Table 2) are used. Theseprobabilities are normalized to calculate crispprobabilities shown in 4-th column in Table 3. Forworst-case scenario, the lower limit of most-likely isused and upper limits of quite
 – 
likely, some-likely andless-likely are used. These limits are normalized tocalculate the crisp probabilities for worst-case scenarios,as shown in last column in Table 3.
Your bicycle handle is straight in shap
Like
Must-be
Neutral
Live-with
Dislike
 
 
 
Your
bicycle
handle is not straight in shape
Like
Must-be
Neutral
Live-with
Dislike
 
Customer
Needs
(CN)
Functional Answer
Dysfunctional Answer
 
02468101214161820
Like Must-be Neutral Live-with Dislike
02
4
68101214
16
1820
LikeMust-beNeutralLive-withDislike
 

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