Imaging and cancer: A review
GE Healthcare, 352 Buckingham Avenue, Slough, SL1 4ER, UK
Imperial College Department of Bioengineering, London, UK
A R T I C L E I N F O
Received 6 March 2008Received in revised form28 April 2008Accepted 29 April 2008Available online 10 May 2008
Imaging CancerDiagnosisStaging TherapyTracersContrast
A B S T R A C T
Multiple biomedical imaging techniques are used in all phases of cancer management. Im-aging forms an essential part of cancer clinical protocols and is able to furnish morpholog-ical, structural, metabolic and functional information. Integration with other diagnostictools such as in vitro tissue and ﬂuids analysis assists in clinical decision-making. Hybridimaging techniques are able to supply complementary information for improved staging and therapy planning. Image guided and targeted minimally invasive therapy has thepromise to improve outcome and reduce collateral effects. Early detection of cancerthrough screening based on imaging is probably the major contributor to a reduction inmortality for certain cancers. Targeted imaging of receptors, gene therapy expressionand cancer stem cells are research activities that will translate into clinical use in thenext decade. Technological developments will increase imaging speed to match that of physiological processes. Targeted imaging and therapeutic agents will be developed intandem through close collaboration between academia and biotechnology, informationtechnology and pharmaceutical industries.
2008 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Biomedical imaging, one of the main pillars of comprehensivecancercare,hasmanyadvantagesincludingrealtimemonitor-ing, accessibility withouttissue destruction, minimalor no in-vasivenessand canfunction overwiderangesoftimeandsizescales involved in biological and pathological processes. Timescales go from milliseconds for protein binding and chemicalreactions to years for diseases like cancer. Size scales go frommolecular to cellular to organ to whole organism.The current role of imaging in cancer management isshown inFigure 1and is based on screening and symptomaticdisease management.ThefutureroleofimagingincancermanagementisshowninFigure2andisconcernedwithpre-symptomatic,minimallyinvasive and targeted therapy. Early diagnosis has been themajorfactorin thereduction ofmortalityand cancermanage-ment costs.Biomedical imaging (Ehman et al., 2007) is playing an evermoreimportantroleinallphasesofcancermanagement(Hill-man, 2006; Atri, 2006). These include prediction (de Torreset al., 2007), screening (Lehman et al., 2007; Paajanen, 2006;Sarkeala et al., 2008), biopsy guidance for detection (Nelsonet al., 2007), staging (Kent et al., 2004; Brink et al., 2004; Shimet al., 2004), prognosis (Lee et al., 2004), therapy planning
(Ferme´et al., 2005; Ciernik et al., 2003), therapy guidance
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2008 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.molonc.2008.04.001
M O L E C U L A R O N C O L O G Y 2 (2008) 115–152