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Mishkat al-Anwaar – “The Niche of Lights” by al-Ghazali

Mishkat al-Anwaar – “The Niche of Lights” by al-Ghazali

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 Mishkât Al-Anwar
("THE NICHE FOR LIGHTS")
by AL-GHAZZALI
[1058-1111 C.E.]
A TRANSLATION WITH INTRODUCTION
BY
W. H. T. {William Henry Temple} GAIRDNER
[b. 1873, d. 1928]
B.A. OXON; C.M.S. MISSIONARY IN CAIRO; DIRECTOR OF THE SCHOOL FOR ORIENTAL STUDIES, CAIRO
{First published as Monograph Vol. XIX by the Royal Asiatic Society, London 1924.{scanned at sacred-texts.com, October 2001}{p. v}
 
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I HAVE greatly profited from hints, generously lavished in the course of correspondence,from Professors D.B. MACDONALD, R. NICHOLSON, and LOUIS MASSIGNON, inaddition to recent works by the last two. My cordial thanks to these; and also to ProfessorD.S. MARGOLIOUTH for discussing with me some of the difficult points in thetranslation.{p. vi}{p. vii}
AUTHOR'S PREFACE
I AM so conscious that my general equipment was insufficient to warrant my havingundertaken an
introduction
to this treatise (in addition to the translation), that my utmosthope is this,--that what I have written may be regarded by lenient Orientalists assomething to elicit--provoke, if you will--the necessary supplementing and formativecriticism; or as useful materials to be built into some more authoritative and betterinformed work: and that they may from this point of view be inclined to pardon whatotherwise might seem an unwarrantable piece of rashness and indiscretion.A still greater presumption remains to be forgiven, but this time on the ground of thegreat human simplicities, when I venture to inscribe this work, in spite of everything, tothe beloved memory of IGNAZ GOWZIHER--that golden-hearted man--who in 1911 introduced me to the Mishkât; and to join withhis{p. viii}name that ofDUNCAN BLACK MACDONALDwho first introduced me to the Mishkât's author. Of these twain, the latter may perhapsforgive the lapses of a pupil because of the filial joy with which, I know well, he will seethe two names joined together, howsoever or by whomsoever it was done. As for theformer, . . . in Abraham's bosom all things are forgiven.CAIRO
 July
, 1923.{p. ix}
 
CONTENTS
[Ghazzâlî's sections and titles have been supplemented. The page-references enclosedwithin square brackets in the Introduction, Translation, and foot-notes are references tothe pages of the Arabic text,(Cairo A.H. 1922, Matba`at as Sidq), the numbers of whichwill be found in the text of the Translation, enclosed in square brackets.]TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTIONI. Date, Object, and General Contents 2II. Mysteries left Veiled in this Treatise 4III. A Ghazzâlian Philosophy of Religion 6IV. Ghazzâlî Problems Raised by the Foregoing 14V. The Problem of the Vicegerent in Ibn Rushed and Ibn Tufail 17VI. One Solution of the Problem of the Vicegerent 24VII. Another Solution 32VIII. AI-Ghazzâlî and the Seven Spheres 46IX. Anthropomorphism and Theomorphism in al-Mishkât 50X. Pantheism and al-Ghazzâlî, in al-Mishkât 61TRANSLATION OF MISHKAT AL-ANWAR "THE NICHE FOR LIGHTS"Exordium and Introduction. The "Light" Verse and the "Veils"-Tradition75{p. x}PART I. LIGHT, AND LIGHTS Preliminary Studies.1. "Light" as Physical Light; as the Eye; as the Intelligence 792. The Koran as the Sun of the Intelligence 913. The Worlds Visible and Invisible; with their Lights 93

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