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Table Of Contents

Introduction
1.1Embedded or dispersed generation
1.2Reasons for embedded generation [1,2,4]
1.3Extent of embedded generation
1.4Issues of embedded generation
1.5.1Network voltage changes
1.5.2Increase in network fault levels
1.5.3Power quality
1.5.4Protection
1.5.5Stability
1.5.6Network operation
1.9References
Embedded generation plant
2.1Combined Heat and Power plants
2.2Renewable energy generation
2.2.1Small-scale hydro-generation
2.2.2Wind power plants
2.2.4Solar photovoltaic generation
2.3Summary
2.4References
System studies
3.1Introduction
3.2Types of system studies
3.3Power flow studies
3.3.1Power flow in a two-bus system
3.3.2Relation between flows and voltages
3.3.3Power flow in larger systems
3.3.4Solving the power flow equations
3.3.5Application to an embedded generation scheme
3.4.2Concept of fault level
3.4.3Application to an embedded generation scheme
3.4.4Unbalanced faults
3.4.5Application to an embedded generation scheme
3.4.6Standards for fault calculations
3.5Stability studies
3.5.2Power transfer in a two-bus system
3.5.4The equal area criterion
3.5.5Stability studies in larger systems
3.5.6Stability of induction generators
3.6Electromagnetic transient studies
3.7References
3.8Appendix: Equal area criterion
Generators
4.1Synchronous generators
4.1.1Steady-state operation
4.1.2Excitation systems
4.1.3Operation during network disturbances
4.2Induction generators
4.2.1Steady-state operation
4.2.2Connection of an induction generator
4.2.3Self-excitation
4.2.4Operation during network disturbances
4.3Power electronic converters
4.3.1Voltage source converters
4.4References
Power quality
5.1Voltage flicker
5.2Harmonics
5.3Voltage unbalance
5.4Summary
5.5References
Protection of embedded generators
6.1Introduction
6.2.3Generator embedded into utility network
6.2.4Protection requirements
6.3Overcurrent protection
6.3.1Overcurrent protection of the generator intertie [2,4,5]
6.3.3Negative sequence overcurrent
6.3.4Directional control of overcurrent elements
6.4Earth fault overcurrent protection
6.4.1Methods of earthing the generator
6.4.2Time-delayed earth fault overcurrent
6.4.3Earthing of transformer connected generators
6.4.4Earthing of directly connected generators
6.5Differential protection of the stator winding
6.5.1Operating principle
6.5.2High-impedance differential
6.5.3Low-impedance biased differential protection
6.6Phase and interturn faults on the stator windings
6.7Under/overvoltage protection
6.8Under/overfrequency protection
6.9Reverse power relay
6.10Loss of excitation
6.11Unbalanced loading
6.12Generator stator thermal protection
6.13Overexcitation
6.14Loss of mains protection
6.14.1Rate of change of frequency
6.14.2Vector shift
6.15Rotor protection
6.16References
Reliability concepts and assessment
7.1Introduction
7.2HLI – generation capacity
7.4.1Conceptual requirements
7.4.2Probabilistic criteria and indices
7.4.3Historical evaluation techniques
7.4.4Basic reliability assessments
7.5Distribution systems with embedded generation
7.5.1Concepts of embedded generation
7.5.2Types and impact of energy sources
7.6Historical reliability assessment approaches
7.7Simplified case studies
7.7.1Basic radial systems
7.7.2Embedded generation vs. network expansion
7.8Generation reliability modelling
7.8.1Modelling assumptions and considerations
7.8.2Concepts of modelling
7.8.3Energy source model
7.8.4Generation model
7.8.5Generation plant model
7.8.6Solution of the plant model
7.9Network reliability model
7.10Reliability and production indices
7.10.1Capacity credit
7.10.2Reliability indices
7.10.3Production indices
7.11Study cases
7.12Conclusions
7.13References
Economics of embedded generation
8.1Introduction
8.2Connection costs and charges
8.2.1Concept
8.2.2Voltage level related connection cost
8.3.1Current practice
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Embedded Generation

Embedded Generation

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Published by Haleem Naushath

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Published by: Haleem Naushath on Jul 15, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/13/2013

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