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The Treaty of 1895

The Treaty of 1895

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Published by Ronald Thomas West
A classic case of treaty fraud, investigative report
A classic case of treaty fraud, investigative report

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Categories:Types, Research, Law
Published by: Ronald Thomas West on Jul 15, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The Treaty of 1895By 1895 George Bird Grinnell had become very close friends withJames Willard Schultz and Joe Kipp, with Grinnell visitingBlackfeet country, they had explored and hunted together nearlyevery year since 1885. It is approaching 1895 when Joe Kipp
“… admits being interested in mining claims, staked up just over the ridge of the mountains from the place or locality in question... As they admit of their company or combination having the wholerange staked off, and also state no other person or persons, haveclaims in this region, it would seem that they are about the only persons directly interested in the development of the alleged mining interests…”
or so says Inspector Thomas Smith in 1894 according to theinvestigative report (circa 1950-52) of Michael Foley for theUnited States Indian Claims Commission. Cheating Indians had been so pervasive that special tribunals had been set up for theUnited States Courts to investigate American dealings with theIndians and the report of Mr Foley has an entire section devoted to just this treaty.It is hard to imagine that Grinnell, who would move on to concludethe so called “Grinnell Agreement”- wresting the gold bearingLittle Rocky Mountains from the Gros Ventres Indians for a paltry$350,000, would not have known of the illegal mining explorationsof his friend Schultz and the so called “Kipp Gang” in Blackfeetcountry, in fact not only Kipp, but Shultz and the previous IndianAgent, ‘Captain Cooke’ as well, had ‘pre-staked’ claims in the Northern Rockies Continental Divide Range, anticipating thecoming land cession to the Whites. These are the very lands thatGrinnell, Shultz and Kipp had explored in Grinnell’s map-makingventures beginning in 1887. Suddenly, in September, 1895,Grinnell was back in Indian country as a duly appointed
representative of the United States whose business was to concludea land cession of the suspected mineral bearing properties of theBlackfeet, now comprising portions of Glacier National Park andfurther lands, the Forest Service properties Badger (Bear) River and South Fork of the Two Medicine Lodges Rivers, south of USHighway 2 and the present day national park boundary.The Blackfeet Chiefs of 1895 had their backs to the wall. TheUnited States had starved them into submission, first by the policyof destroying the Buffalo herds, then the Blackfeet were notdelivered their promised foods until thousands had died (known asthe Starvation Winters, with an under-reported death toll in theannals of the USA, between 1882 and the end of the starvationwinters many Blackfeet simply vanished from the Oral History, thesouthernmost Bands of Indians that would have been Big Lake’s people particularly noted here) and the ridge a few miles below theBadger Canyon was so littered with caskets and unburied bodies,that it became known as Ghost Ridge. Ceding the Sweet GrassHills due to this starvation, in 1887, was supposed to have giventhe tribe the requisite wealth to take them into to the future, downthe Whiteman road, but most of this money had been stolen by itsUnited States administrators, and not surprisingly, the unwillingBlackfeet Chiefs now were back before the negotiators sent by theUnited States who now wanted these further lands with thesuspected mineral potential. The meeting of the Blackfeet Chiefsand the United States Commissioners to discuss this issue was atthe Blackfeet Indian Agency hospital building in what is nowBrowning, Montana.
Commissioner Pollack to the Blackfeet Chiefs: “We understand that you have agreed on what part you wish to sell, that liesentirely with you..Commissioner Grinnell to the Chiefs: “What I shall say to you will be simply to second Mr Pollack’s remarks..
Commissioner Clements: “We are not here to drive a bargain, the government simply desires to buy land that the Indians do nowant.. Little Dog 
[a bad translation, this is the ‘Pup’]
to theCommissioners: “The Indians did not ask the Government to comeand buy their land..”
 The Pup rebuts the commissioners opening remarks as absolutelyuntrue. The Pup is a ‘pagan’ Blackfeet, as are most of his people atthis time, and does not want to sell the mountain home of histribe’s gods. Besides, The Pup is convinced these men are here tocheat his people. The Pup’s presumptions are not withoutfoundation, it has already been falsely reported to the United StatesIndian Commissioner Browning that the Indians nearlyunanimously want to sell the mountain portion of their reservation,which, excepting White Calf, is absolutely rebutted by the further speeches of these chiefs..
“White Calf to the Commissioners: “We Indians, in my mind, arenothing but common dogs. The Great Father has taken it into hishead to break in these wild dogs and has done so..”
White Calf is a Christian and a broken man, not a chief in the oldsense. White Calf is a sycophant that always will grovel before theUnited States, as indicated in his terms of speech ‘The GreatFather.’ White Calf is under the absolute influence of Joe Kipp andJames Willard Schultz, and what is described in the investigativereports of the United States Indian Claims Commission as the[criminal] “Agency Ring.” Commissioner Grinnell is so close tothese thieves that he is in fact considered by most of the Indians present to be a de facto member of the same criminal ring, knownto the Indians at the agency as the „Kipp Gang.“

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