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Fallacies

Fallacies

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List of fallacies
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of logical fallacies.
Formal fallacies
Formal fallacies are arguments that are fallacious due to an error in their form or technical structure. All formal fallacies are specific types of non
sequiturs.
\ue000Appeal to probability: because somethingcould happen, it is inevitable that itwill happen. This is the premise on which Murphy's Law is
based.

\ue000Argument from fallacy: if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious, then the conclusion must necessarily be false.
\ue000Bare assertion fallacy: premise in an argument is assumed to be true purely because it says that it is true.
\ue000Base rate fallacy: using weak evidence to make a probability judgment without taking into account known empirical statistics about the

probability.
\ue000Conjunction fallacy: assumption that specific conditions are more probable than a single general one.
\ue000Correlative based fallacies
\ue000Denying the correlative: where attempts are made at introducing alternatives where there are none

\ue000Suppressed correlative: where a correlative is redefined so that one alternative is made impossible
\ue000Fallacy of necessity: a degree of unwarranted necessity is placed in the conclusion based on the necessity of one or more of its premises
\ue000False dilemma (false dichotomy): where two alternative statements are held to be the only possible options, when in reality there are several
\ue000If-by-whiskey: An answer that takes side of the questioner's suggestive question
\ue000Ignoratio elenchi (irrelevant conclusion or irrelevant thesis)
\ue000Homunculus fallacy: where a "middle-man" is used for explanation, this usually leads to regressive middle-man explanations without

actually explaining the real nature of a function or a process

\ue000Masked man fallacy: the substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one
\ue000Naturalistic fallacy: a fallacy that claims that if something is natural, then it is "good" or "right"
\ue000Nirvana fallacy: when solutions to problems are said not to be right because they are not perfect
\ue000Negative Proof fallacy: that, because a premise cannot be proven false, the premise must be true; or that, because a premise cannot be proven

true, the premise must be false
\ue000Package-deal fallacy: when two or more things have been linked together by tradition or culture are said to stay that way forever
Propositional fallacies
Propositional fallacies:
\ue000Affirming a disjunct: concluded that one logical disjunction must be false because the other disjunct is true.
\ue000Affirming the consequent: the antecedent in an indicative conditional is claimed to be true because the consequent is true. Has the form if A,
then B; B, therefore A
\ue000Denying the antecedent: the consequent in an indicative conditional is claimed to be false because the antecedent is false; if A, then B; not A,
therefore not B
Quantificational fallacies
Quantificational fallacies:
\ue000Existential fallacy: an argument has two universal premises and a particular conclusion, but the premises do not establish the truth of the
conclusion
\ue000Illicit conversion: the invalid conclusion that because a statement is true, the inverse must be as well
\ue000Proof by example: where things are proved by giving an example
Contents
\ue0001 Formal fallacies

\ue0001.1 Propositional fallacies
\ue0001.2 Quantificational fallacies
\ue0001.3 Formal syllogistic fallacies

\ue0002 Informal fallacies
\ue0002.1 Faulty generalizations
\ue0002.2 Red herring fallacies

\ue0003 Conditional or questionable fallacies
\ue0004 See also
\ue0005 External links

Yourcontinued donations keep Wikipedia running!
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fallacies
Formal syllogistic fallacies
Syllogistic fallacies are logical fallacies that occur in syllogisms.

\ue000Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise
\ue000Fallacy of exclusive premises: a categorical syllogism that is invalid because both of its premises are negative
\ue000Fallacy of four terms: a categorical syllogism has four terms
\ue000Illicit major: a categorical syllogism that is invalid because its major term is undistributed in the major premise but distributed in the

conclusion
\ue000Illicit minor: a categorical syllogism that is invalid because its minor term is undistributed in the minor premise but distributed in the
conclusion.
\ue000Fallacy of the undistributed middle: the middle term in a categorical syllogism is not distributed
\ue000Categorical syllogism: an argument with a positive conclusion, but one or two negative premises
Informal fallacies
Informal fallacies are arguments that are fallacious for reasons other than structural ("formal") flaws.
\ue000Argument from repetition (argumentum ad nauseam)
\ue000Appeal to ridicule: a specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument is made by presenting the opponent's argument in a way that
makes it appear ridiculous
\ue000Argument from ignorance ("appeal to ignorance"): The fallacy of assuming that something is true/false because it has not been proven
false/true. For example: "The student has failed to prove that he didn't cheat on the test, therefore he must have cheated on the test."

\ue000Begging the question ("petitio principii"): where the conclusion of an argument is implicitly or explicitly assumed in one of the premises
\ue000Burden of proof
\ue000Circular cause and consequence
\ue000Continuum fallacy (fallacy of the beard)
\ue000Correlation does not imply causation (cum hoc ergo propter hoc)
\ue000Equivocation
\ue000Fallacies of distribution

\ue000Division: where one reasons logically that something true of a thing must also be true of all or some of its parts

\ue000Ecological fallacy
\ue000Fallacy of many questions (complex question, fallacy of presupposition, loaded question, plurium interrogationum)
\ue000Fallacy of the single cause
\ue000Historian's fallacy
\ue000False attribution

\ue000Fallacy of quoting out of context
\ue000False compromise/middle ground
\ue000Gambler's fallacy: the incorrect belief that the likelihood of a random event can be affected by or predicted from other, independent events
\ue000Incomplete comparison
\ue000Inconsistent comparison
\ue000Intentional fallacy
\ue000Loki's Wager
\ue000Moving the goalpost
\ue000No true Scotsman
\ue000Perfect solution fallacy: where an argument assumes that a perfect solution exists and/or that a solution should be rejected because some part

of the problem would still exist after it was implemented

\ue000Post hoc ergo propter hoc: also known as false cause, coincidental correlation or correlation not causation.
\ue000Proof by verbosity (argumentum verbosium)
\ue000Psychologist's fallacy
\ue000Regression fallacy
\ue000Reification (hypostatization)
\ue000Retrospective determinism (it happened so it was bound to)
\ue000Special pleading: where a proponent of a position attempts to cite something as an exemption to a generally accepted rule or principle

without justifying the exemption
\ue000Suppressed correlative: an argument which tries to redefine a correlative (two mutually exclusive options) so that one alternative
encompasses the other, thus making one alternative impossible
\ue000Wrong direction
Faulty generalizations
Faulty generalizations:

\ue000Accident (fallacy): when an exception to the generalization is ignored
\ue000Cherry picking
\ue000Composition: where one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some (or even every) part of the whole

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fallacies
\ue000Dicto simpliciter

\ue000Converse accident (a dicto secundum quid ad dictum simpliciter): when an exception to a generalization is wrongly called for
\ue000False analogy
\ue000Hasty generalization (fallacy of insufficient statistics, fallacy of insufficient sample, fallacy of the lonely fact, leaping to a conclusion,hasty

induction, secundum quid)

\ue000Loki's Wager: insistence that because a concept cannot be clearly defined, it cannot be discussed
\ue000Misleading vividness
\ue000Overwhelming exception
\ue000Spotlight fallacy
\ue000Thought-terminating clich\u00e9: a commonly used phrase, sometimes passing as folk wisdom, used to quell cognitive dissonance.

Red herring fallacies
A red herring is an argument, given in response to another argument, which does not address the original issue. See also irrelevant conclusion
\ue000Ad hominem: attacking the personal instead of the argument. A form of this is reductio ad Hitlerum.
\ue000Argumentum ad baculum ("appeal to force", "appeal to the stick"): where an argument is made through coercion or threats of force towards
an opposing party
\ue000Argumentum ad populum ("appeal to belief", "appeal to the majority", "appeal to the people"): where a proposition is claimed to be true
solely because many people believe it to be true

\ue000Association fallacy & Guilt by association
\ue000Appeal to authority: where an assertion is deemed true because of the position or authority of the person asserting it
\ue000Appeal to consequences: a specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument concludes a premise is either true or false based on whether

the premise leads to desirable or undesirable consequences for a particular party
\ue000Appeal to emotion: where an argument is made due to the manipulation of emotions, rather than the use of valid reasoning
\ue000Appeal to fear: a specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument is made by increasing fear and prejudice towards the opposing
side
\ue000Wishful thinking: a specific type of appeal to emotion where a decision is made according to what might be pleasing to imagine, rather
than according to evidence or reason
\ue000Appeal to spite: a specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument is made through exploiting people's bitterness or spite towards
an opposing party

\ue000Appeal to flattery: a specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument is made due to the use of flattery to gather support
\ue000Appeal to motive: where a premise is dismissed, by calling into question the motives of its proposer
\ue000Appeal to novelty: where a proposal is claimed to be superior or better solely because it is new or modern
\ue000Appeal to poverty (argumentum ad lazarum)
\ue000Appeal to wealth (argumentum ad crumenam)
\ue000Argument from silence (argumentum ex silentio)
\ue000Appeal to tradition: where a thesis is deemed correct on the basis that it has a long-standing tradition behind it
\ue000Chronological snobbery: where a thesis is deemed incorrect because it was commonly held when something else, clearly false, was also

commonly held

\ue000Genetic fallacy
\ue000Judgmental language
\ue000Poisoning the well
\ue000Sentimental fallacy: it would be more pleasant if; therefore it ought to be; therefore it is
\ue000Straw man argument
\ue000Style over substance fallacy
\ue000Texas sharpshooter fallacy
\ue000Two wrongs make a right
\ue000Tu quoque

Conditional or questionable fallacies
\ue000Definist fallacy
\ue000Slippery slope
See also

\ue000List of common misconceptions
\ue000List of cognitive biases
\ue000List of memory biases
\ue000List of misquotations
\ue000List of topics related to public relations and propaganda
\ue000Straight and Crooked Thinking(book)

External links
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fallacies

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