began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. Allflights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev’s facility atthe Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow.
Tu-144 Development History
The Tu-144 was one of only two first-generation supersonictransports or SSTs (the other being the Anglo-French Concorde)to go into actual production and commercial service. Thesleek, double-delta-winged craft was the brainchild of famedRussian aircraft designer Andrei N. Tupolev, who oversawthe development of the Tu-144 as general designer. Theprototype Tu-144 was first flown on Dec. 31, 1968, about twomonths before the competing Concorde prototype took to theair.On Nov. 1, 1977, the Russian airline Aeroflot inauguratedpassenger service with a production model Tu-144 when itflew from Moscow to Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan. Limitedrange and other technical problems led to service beingdiscontinued in 1978 after only 102 passenger flights. Bycomparison, the Concorde began commercial trans-Atlanticservice with British Airways and Air France in January1976.A total of 17 Tu-144s were manufactured, including aprototype, two production test versions and 14 productionaircraft. The latter included five “D” models which werefitted with different engines.
The aircraft flown in NASA’s research program was a “D”model and was the last Tu-144 built. Bearing tail number77114, it was constructed in 1981 and had logged a totalflight time of only 82 hours and 40 minutes, most of thatfor research and test purposes, before being selected for theNASA-sponsored program. It was never used in commer-cial service.The aircraft underwent many upgrades and modifications inits conversion to the “LL” Flying Laboratory, including theinstallation of more powerful NK-321 augmented-turbofanengines that were originally produced for the Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack bomber.A new Damien digital data collection system replaced anearlier analog system to collect airworthiness data and datafrom the experiments. Thermocouples, pressure sensors,microphones and skin friction gauges were placed on theTu-144LL to measure the aerodynamic boundary layer—the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of amoving aircraft. It also carried a significant number of other research instruments. An emergency crew escapesystem was also installed.
Flight and Ground Experiments
Out of 50 experiments originally proposed, project officialsselected eight, including six flight and two ground engine