Hovis 2 baptism, the blood His atoning sacrifice, and the Spirit the seal of salvation that makes the truthknown because He is truth (v. 7). In this sense, the Spirit is the revealer of the revelation of Jesus Christ, upholds the gospel perfectly, and in conjunction with the Word grows andtransforms the believers born of God, thus serving as a sure testimony of Jesus’ divinity. The passage, including vv. 7-8 of UBS, is repetitious in its thought and vocabulary, a norm for John.The Greek reading, which is nearly identical to the Latin apart from clause order and the phrase “in Christ Jesus,” was likely translated from the Latin. The additional clauses (known asthe Johannine Comma or
) originally say, “which testify in the heaven, theFather the Word and the Holy Spirit, and these the three one are. and three are the ones whichtestify in the earth, the Spirit and the water and the blood.” They reveal a Trinitarian bias on behalf of those who argued for their inclusion. The text agrees with Johannine theology but doesnot fit the immediate context. Furthermore, its use of
occurs infrequently inJohn’s writings. If the translators wanted their counterfeit text to appear legitimate (i.e.,original), they should have taken the context and John’s writing style into consideration.Regarding the Latin reading, Erasmus had agreed to include it in his Latin N.T.translation (eventually Textus Receptus) of the Greek text if such a reading were in Greek manuscripts. Those who pushed for its inclusion delivered the Greek evidence, and Erasmuskept his word, knowing the manuscripts were fabricated. This reading became more and more prevalent in later Latin versions (Metzger 716) and appears in eight minuscules and the modernversions developed from them. In conclusion, this variant has no more credibility than a gossip.