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TA Paper [A]

TA Paper [A]

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Published by Kristi Hovis
Textual criticism at the [A] level means that originality of the verse is nearly certain based on ample internal and external evidence.
Textual criticism at the [A] level means that originality of the verse is nearly certain based on ample internal and external evidence.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Kristi Hovis on Jul 19, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Hovis 1Kristi HovisMcClainRBLA 423April 19, 2010Textual Criticism According to UBS Categories: [A]1 John 5:7-8The text included in UBS
is certainly original. The two other readings do not maintainvalidity against evaluation of internal and external evidence.External EvidenceThe fraudulent alternative Latin reading and its subsequent Greek text lack substantialmanuscript support from all the text types as well as reliable witnesses. These readings are later than the accepted UBS text and were likely first circulated in Latin versions—only eight Greek manuscripts use the additional text (Metzger 716), all being minuscules. According tomanuscripts discovered to date, early church fathers and ancient versions, with the exception of afew Vulgate and an Armenian version, do not employ them. Based on external evidence alone,the accepted text of 1 John 5:7-8 with its early and reliable witnesses (e.g., Codex Sinaiticus andCodex Vaticanus) is well established.Internal EvidenceIn examining the accepted text, the verses correspond well with the context, style, andvocabulary of the entire chapter and Johannine writing. In Chapter 5, John explains thetestimony of Jesus’ divine sonship by three witnesses: the water, blood, and the Spirit. Sayingthat these three testify and are in agreement gives support to John’s argument that those who believe can find their assurance of eternal life in Christ. Here the water represents Jesus’
Hovis 2 baptism, the blood His atoning sacrifice, and the Spirit the seal of salvation that makes the truthknown because He is truth (v. 7). In this sense, the Spirit is the revealer of the revelation of Jesus Christ, upholds the gospel perfectly, and in conjunction with the Word grows andtransforms the believers born of God, thus serving as a sure testimony of Jesus’ divinity. The passage, including vv. 7-8 of UBS, is repetitious in its thought and vocabulary, a norm for John.The Greek reading, which is nearly identical to the Latin apart from clause order and the phrase “in Christ Jesus,” was likely translated from the Latin. The additional clauses (known asthe Johannine Comma or 
Comma Johanneum
) originally say, “which testify in the heaven, theFather the Word and the Holy Spirit, and these the three one are. and three are the ones whichtestify in the earth, the Spirit and the water and the blood.” They reveal a Trinitarian bias on behalf of those who argued for their inclusion. The text agrees with Johannine theology but doesnot fit the immediate context. Furthermore, its use of 
a[gion pneu/ma
occurs infrequently inJohn’s writings. If the translators wanted their counterfeit text to appear legitimate (i.e.,original), they should have taken the context and John’s writing style into consideration.Regarding the Latin reading, Erasmus had agreed to include it in his Latin N.T.translation (eventually Textus Receptus) of the Greek text if such a reading were in Greek manuscripts. Those who pushed for its inclusion delivered the Greek evidence, and Erasmuskept his word, knowing the manuscripts were fabricated. This reading became more and more prevalent in later Latin versions (Metzger 716) and appears in eight minuscules and the modernversions developed from them. In conclusion, this variant has no more credibility than a gossip.

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