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Salim AOULMIT : Simulation de l'effet des pièges sur l'efficacité de transfert de charge dans les circuits à transfert de charge (CCDs)

Salim AOULMIT : Simulation de l'effet des pièges sur l'efficacité de transfert de charge dans les circuits à transfert de charge (CCDs)

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Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Science in Physics
of Semiconductors
Entitled:
Simulation de l'effet des pièges sur l'efficacité de transfert
de charge dans les circuits à transfert de charge (CCDs)
by : Salim AOULMIT
Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Science in Physics
of Semiconductors
Entitled:
Simulation de l'effet des pièges sur l'efficacité de transfert
de charge dans les circuits à transfert de charge (CCDs)
by : Salim AOULMIT

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Published by: Salah Eddine Bekhouche on Jul 19, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/29/2012

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Examination committee:Full Name Title Quality UniversityAbderrachid Helmaoui Pr Chairman BecharNouredine Sengouga Pr Supervisor BiskraLakhdar Dehimi Pr Co- supervisor BiskraAbderrahmane Belghachi Pr Examiner BecharFayçal Djeffal M.C.A Examiner BatnaAmjad Meftah M.C.A Examiner BiskraAndré Sopszak Pr Invited Lancaster
by : Salim AOULMIT 
Thesis
 
Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Science in Physicsof Semiconductors
 Entitled:
Simulation de l'effet des pièges sur l'efficacité de transfertde charge dans les circuits à transfert de charge (CCDs
 )
 
Democratic and Popular Republic of AlgeriaMinistry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
Mohammed Khider UniversityFaculty of Fundamental Sciences, Biology and Nature
Département of Materials Science
June 2010
 
 
i
 Abstract
Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) have been successfully used in several high energyphysics experiments over the past two decades. Their high spatial resolution and thinsensitive layers make them an excellent tool for studying short-lived particles. Theresults of detailed simulations of the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) of a 3-phasesand 2-phases CCD are performed with the Integrated Systems Engineering TechnologyComputer Aided Design (ISE-TCAD) carried out by the LCFI group at LancasterUniversity (UK). Full TCAD simulations are very CPU intensive, hence the need of ananalytic modeling. In this work an analytic model has been developed for thedetermination of the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI). The CTI values determined withthis model agree largely with those obtained from a full TCAD simulation. The modelallows efficient study of the variation of the CTI on parameters like readout frequency,operating temperature, occupancy, shape of the signal charge and the clock formvoltage. Several types of defects are created in the irradiated CCDs, but only the 0.17eV and 0.44 eV trap levels are considered since they are the most effective. At lowtemperatures (< 230K) the 0.17 eV traps dominate the CTI, whereas the 0.44 eV trapsdominate at higher temperatures. The effects of the background and the Occupancy onthe CTI were observed only at low temperatures. The CTI decreases by increasing thesignal charge density while it increases with increasing trap density. The signal shapeaffects the CTI mostly in the peak region. A smaller width of the potential welldecreases the CTI. The inclusion of the clock voltage effects leads to smaller CTI valuesonly at high temperatures. In summary it was found that the optimum operatingtemperature for the both 3-phases CCD and 2-phases CCD in a high radiationenvironment is found to be about 230 K for readout frequencies in the range 10 to50MHz.
 
 
ii
Acknowledgements
 First of all I should thank
 
 Allah the almighty who has helped me to accomplish thiswork.
 
This work was carried out partly in the Laboratory of Metallic and SemiconductingMaterials (LMSM) of the University of Biskra and The Department of Physics of Lancaster University. Therefore many people have contributed to the work presented inthis thesis. I would like to thank them for their help and support. First, I would like tothank my thesis advisor, Professor Nouredine Sengouga and Professor Lakhdar Dehimifor the guidance and encouragement. I would like to thank Professor André Sopszak forthe help and the excellent conditions that he provided for my work at LancasterUniversity (UK). His leading role was crucial for the progress of the study presented inthis thesis. I would like to thank Khaled bekhouche for his invaluable help throughoutthe study. I would like also to thank all LCFI members for their critical remarks andsuggestions especially Konstantin Stefanov, Steve Worm (STFC Rutherford AppletonLaboratory, UK) and Chris Bowdery (Lancaster University, UK). Thanks to AlexChilingarov for his useful discussion at Lancaster University (UK) and DahmaneDjendaoui for his cooperation. Lastly but not least I would like express my sincereappreciations for the University of Biskra for providing short term grants during myvisits to Lancaster University.

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