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14.2 - Hybridisation

14.2 - Hybridisation

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Published by: IB Screwed on Jul 19, 2011
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05/11/2014

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 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
14.2 - Hybridisation
14.2.1 - Describe
σ
and
π
bonds
According to Lewis theory, covalent bonds consist of shared pairs of electrons, creating anarea of electron density between the atoms. Also,
atomic orbital theory
states thatelectrons exist in atomic orbitals that are regions of space surrounding the nucleus that canonly hold up to
two electrons
.Valence bond theory defines a bond as a region of electron density between two atomsformed from two overlapping orbitals. These must be from different atoms, and eachcontain only one unpaired electron, and merge in the region between the atoms.
Sigma bonds ( 
σ 
 )
Sigma bonds are the result of axial overlap of orbitals, where two sor p orbitals overlap on the same axis. This explains why there isvariation in the length on sigma bonds in different molecules, as itdepends on the size of the orbitals
Pi bonds ( 
π
 )
In a pi bond, the atoms have moved close enough for a p orbital to overlap along parallelaxes. Therefore, a pi bond is defined as the sideways overlap of parallel p orbitals. However,the amount of overlapping possible here is limited, making pi bonds slightly weaker andsigma bonds.Pi bonds are usually involved in double or triplebonds. A double bond is made up of one sigma andone pi bond, and a triple bond is made up of a sigmaand two pi bonds.
 
 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
14.2.2 - Explain hybridisation in terms of the mixing of atomic orbital to form new orbitalsto form new orbitals for bonding
Hybridisation was first noticed when scientists found that all thebonds in a CH
4
molecule are the same length, yet a carbon atomhas two s orbitals and two p orbitals, which are different.For the bonds to form, each orbital can only contain one electron,so the orbitals in the valence shell mix together and make hybridorbitals. These orbitals are shaped differently from their constituent orbitals, but there isstill the same number of orbitals. Also, there is no energy change involved in forming theorbitals.
Hybridisation is the process of mixing atomic orbitals as atomsapproach each other to form bonds
14.2.3 - Identify and explain the relationships between Lewis structures, molecular shapesand types of hybridisation (sp, sp
2
and sp
3
)
sp
3
hybridisation
This is formed from the mixing of three p orbitals and an s orbital, creating four sp
3
hybridorbitals, such as in CH
4
.These new hybrid orbitals are made up of two lobes, but one is significantlylarger than the other. The four sp
3
orbitals arrange into a tetrahedral shape witha bond angle of 109.5
o
.
 
REMEMBER!
Hybridisation ONLY happenswhen the atoms form bonds
 
 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
Methane - CH
4
 Ethane - C
 
2
H
6
 Ammonia - NH
3
 Although it has the same type of hybridisation, ammonia has a bond angle of 107° becauseof the non-bonding pair of electrons, making it trigonal pyramidal in shape

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