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Zoltán Dörnyei (1994) Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language Classroom

Zoltán Dörnyei (1994) Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language Classroom

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Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language Classroom Author(s): Zoltán Dörnyei Source: The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 273-284 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/330107 Accessed: 02/07/2010 13:41
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/p
Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language Classroom Author(s): Zoltán Dörnyei Source: The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 273-284 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/330107 Accessed: 02/07/2010 13:41
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/p

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Motivation and Motivating in the Foreign Language ClassroomAuthor(s): Zoltán DörnyeiSource:
The Modern Language Journal,
Vol. 78, No. 3 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 273-284Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern LanguageTeachers AssociationsStable URL:
Accessed: 02/07/2010 13:41
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=black .Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
 Blackwell Publishing
and
 National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations
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The Modern Language Journal.
http://www.jstor.org
 
Motivation
and
Motivating
in
the
Foreign
Language
Classroom
ZOLTAN DORNYEIDepartmentf English,EitvosUniversity1146Budapest,AjtosiDirer sor19,HungaryEmail:dornyei@ludens.elte.huMOTIVATIONIS ONE OFTHE MAIN DETER-minants ofsecond/foreign language(L2)learningachievementand,accordingly,the lastthree decades have seen a considerableamountof research thatinvestigatesthe nature androle ofmotivationintheL2learning process.Muchofthis research has been initiated andinspiredbytwo Canadianpsychologists,Robert Gardnerand Wallace Lambert(see 34),who,togetherwith theircolleaguesandstudents,groundedmotivation researchinasocialpsychologicalframework(forrecentsummaries,see33;35).Gardner and his associates also establishedsci-entific researchproceduresand introducedstandardised assessmenttechniquesand instru-ments,thussetting highresearch standards andbringingL2motivation research tomaturity.AlthoughGardner's motivation construct didnotgounchallengedover theyears(see2;44),itwas not until theearly1990sthata markedshiftinthoughtappearedinpapersonL2mo-tivation as researchers triedtoreopenthere-searchagendainordertoshed newlighton thesubject(e.g.,10; 19; 51;52).Themainproblemwith Gardner'ssocialpsychologicalapproachappearedtobe,ironically,that it was too influ-ential.InCrookes andSchmidt'swords,itwas"sodominantthatalternativeconceptshavenotbeenseriouslyconsidered"(p.501).Thisresultedin anunbalancedpicture,involvingaconceptionthatwas,as Skehanputit,"limitedcomparedtotherangeofpossibleinfluencesthatexist"(52:p.280).Whileacknowledgingunanimouslythe fundamentalimportanceoftheGardnerian socialpsychologicalmodel,re-searchers werealsocallingfor amoreprag-matic,education-centredapproachtomotiva-
The ModernLanguageJournal,78,iii(1994)
0026-7902/94/273-284$1.50/0
?1994 TheModernLanguageJournal
tionresearch,which wouldbe consistentwiththeperceptionsofpractisingteachers andwhich would alsobe in line with the currentresults of mainstreameducationalpsychologi-cal research.It must be notedthat Gardner's(32)motiva-tiontheorydoes include an educationaldimen-sion and that the motivation test heandhisassociatesdeveloped,theAttitude/MotivationTestBattery(AMTB)(31),contains severalitemsfocusingon the learner's evaluationoftheclassroomlearningsituation.However,themainemphasisinGardner's model-and thewayit has beentypicallyunderstood-isongeneralmotivationalcomponentsgroundedinthe so-cialmilieurather thanintheforeign languageclassroom.Forexample,theAMTBcontainsasectioninwhich students' attitudes toward thelanguageteacher and the course are tested.Thismaybeappropriateformeasurementpur-poses,but the data from this section donotprovideadetailedenough descriptionof theclassroomdimension tobehelpfulingenerat-ingpracticalguidelines.As Gardner andMacIn-tyre(35)recentlystatedconcerningthe learn-ingsituation-specificsection of theAMTB,"attention is directed towardonlytwotargets,largelybecausetheyare moregeneralisableacrossdifferentstudies"(p.2).Finally,Gard-ner'smotivation construct doesnotincludede-tails oncognitive aspectsof motivation tolearn,whereas this is thedirectioninwhich educa-tionalpsychologicalresearch onmotivationhasbeenmoving duringthe last fifteenyears.Thepurposeof thispaper-followingCrookesand Schmidt's and Skehan's initiative-is tohelpfoster furtherunderstandingofL2motiva-tion from aneducationalperspective.A num-ber ofrelevant motivationalcomponents(manyofthemlargelyunexploitedinL2research)willbedescribed,and these will then beintegratedintoamultilevelL2motivationconstruct.In
 
274addition,aset ofpracticalguidelinesonhowtoapplythe research results toactualteachingwillbeformulated;Ibelieve that thequestionofhowto motivate tudents isanarea on whichL2motivation researchhas notplacedsufficientemphasisinthepast.Interestingly,averyrecentpaperbyOxfordandShearinsetsouttopursuesimilargoalstothose ofthecurrentauthor,bydiscussingmo-tivationaltheories from differentbranchesofpsychology-general,industrial,educational,andcognitive developmental psychology-andby integratingthemintoanexpandedtheoreti-cal frameworkthat haspracticalinstructionalimplications.Thisverycomprehensiveandin-sightfulstudy,togetherwith theworks citedabove and theauthor'scurrentdiscussion,mayprovidea firmerbasisfor new directions ofre-searchinL2motivation.At theoutset,I would liketoacknowledgeonceagaintheseminalwork of RobertGardnerand hiscolleagues.Gardner'stheoryhaspro-foundlyinfluencedmythinkingon thissubject,andIshareOxfordand Shearin'sassertion that:Thecurrentauthorsdonot intend tooverturntheideasnordenigratethemajorcontributionsofre-searcherssuch asGardner,Lambert,Lalonde,andothers,whopowerfullybroughtmotivationalssuesto theattentionof theL2field. We wantto main-tain thebest of theexistingL2learningmotivationtheoryandpushitsparametersoutward(p.13).Indeed,there willbe anattemptinthispapertointegratethe socialpsychologicalconstructspostulatedbyGardner,Clement,andtheirasso-ciatesinto theproposednewframeworkofL2motivation.THE SOCIALDIMENSIONOFL2MOTIVATIONOnerecurringquestionin recentpapershasbeenhow "social"aL2motivationconstructshouldbeandwhat therelationshipbetweensocialattitudesandmotivationis. Tostartwith,itmust berealisedthat"attitudes"and"motiva-tion"tendnotto be usedtogetherinthepsy-chologicalliteratureastheyare consideredtobekeytermsof differentbranchesofpsychol-ogy."Attitude"is usedin socialpsychologyandsociology,whereactionis seenasthefunctionofthe socialcontextandtheinterpersonal/intergrouprelationalpatterns.Motivationalpsychologists,ontheotherhand,have beenlookingforthemotorsofhumanbehaviourintheindividualratherthanin thesocialbeing,focusingtraditionallyonconceptssuch asin-The ModernLanguageournal78(1994)stinct,drive,arousal,need,andonpersonalitytraitslikeanxietyandneed forachievement,andmorerecentlyoncognitive appraisalsof successandfailure,ability,self-esteem,etc.(53; 54).L2learningpresentsauniquesituation dueto the multifacetednature androle oflanguage.Itisat the sametime:a)acommunicationodingsystemhatcan betaughtasa schoolsubject,b)anintegral partofthe individualsidentityin-volvedinalmost all mentalactivities,and alsoc)the mostimportantchannelofsocialorganisationembeddedin the cultureof thecommunitywhereitis used.Thus,L2learningismorecom-plexthansimplymasteringnew informationandknowledge;in addition to the environmen-talandcognitivefactorsnormallyassociatedwithlearningincurrenteducationalpsychol-ogy,itinvolves variouspersonalitytraits and so-cialcomponents.For thisreason,anadequateL2motivation constructis boundto beeclectic,bringing togetherfactorsfrom differentpsy-chologicalfields.ComingfromCanada,wherelanguagelearn-ingis a featuredsocial issue-atthe cruxoftherelationshipbetweentheAnglophoneandFrancophonecommunities-GardnerandLambert wereparticularlysensitiveto the socialdimensionofL2motivation.Theimportanceofthisdimensionis notrestricted toCanada.Ifweconsider thatthevastmajorityofnationsin theworldaremulticultural,and mostof these aremultilingual,and thatthere aremorebilingualsin the worldthan there aremonolinguals(32),wecannotfailtoappreciatethe immensesocialrelevanceoflanguagelearningworldwide.IntegrativenessandInstrumentality.Gardner'smotivationconstructhasoftenbeenunder-stoodastheinterplayof twocomponents,inte-grativeandinstrumentalmotivations.The for-meris associatedwith apositivedispositiontowardthe L2groupandthedesireto interactwith andevenbecomesimilartovaluedmem-bersof thatcommunity.Thelatteris relatedtothepotentialpragmaticgainsofL2proficiency,suchasgettinga betterjobor ahighersalary.Itmustbenoted,however,that Gardner'stheoryandtestbatteryaremorecomplexandreachbeyondtheinstrumental/integrativedichot-omy.As GardnerandMaclntyrestate,"Theim-portantpointis thatmotivationitselfisdy-namic.Theold characterizationof motivationin terms ofintegrativevs.instrumentalorienta-tionsis toostaticand restricted"(p.4).Thepopularityoftheintegrative-instru-mentalsystemispartlydueto itssimplicityandintuitivelyconvincingcharacter,butpartlyalso

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