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III.1 Dino Introduction

III.1 Dino Introduction

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Published by: Cesar Alarcon Zapata on Jul 19, 2011
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IOC Science and Communication Centre on Harmful Algae University of Copenhagen 
Harmful dinoflagellates, Introduction, page 1 of 10 
Module III (22 hours)Harmful dinoflagellates
Section 1, General introduction (4 hours)
1.1. Suggested reading1.2. Some basic features of dinoflagellates1.3. Diversity of dinoflagellates1.4. Identification of dinoflagellates,Kofoidian tabulation, see separate document1.5. References1.6. Glossary
Section 2, Prorocentrales (2 hours)
2.1. Suggested reading2.2. Genus
TaxonomyMorphologyIdentification of species2.3. Harmful species, Benthic species of
 2.4. References
Section 3, Dinophysiales (2 hours)
 3.1. Suggested reading3.2. IntroductionTaxonomyMorphologyThe species concept in
 Life history3.3. Harmful species3.4. References
Section 4, Gonyaulacales (8 hours)
4.1. Suggested reading4.2. The potentially harmful genera4.3. Genus
 TaxonomyIdentification of species of
, Taxonomic charactersHarmful species4.4.
Pyrodinium bahamense 
see separate document4.8. References
Section 5, Gymnodiniales and Noctilucales (2 hours)
5.1. Suggested reading5.2. Introduction to the taxonomy of unarmoured dinoflagellatesIdentification of generaIdentification of species5.3. Harmful species5.4. References
Section 6, Dinoflagellate cysts (4 hours)
6.1. Suggested reading6.2. Some basic features6.3. Taxonomy: classification and identification of harmful species6.4. Notes on HAB cysts types6.5. Methods6.6. References and identification literature6.7. Glossary
Harmful dinoflagellates, Introduction, page 2 of 10 
Section 1, General introduction (4 hours)
1.1. Suggested reading1.2. Some basic features of dinoflagellates1.3. Diversity of dinoflagellates1.4. Identification of dinoflagellatesKofoidian tabulation, see separate document1.5. References1.6. GlossaryReferences in
are either from the textbook (Graham, Graham & Wilcox 2009) oravailable as pdf files on the course CD.
1.1. Suggested reading
Present document and textbook:
Graham, L.E., Graham, J.M. & Wilcox, L.W. 2009
: Chapter 11, p. 186-87 (Dinoflagellates) –11.2. Dinoflagellate cell biology: 189-197 (Celllular features …) – 11.3. Sexual reproductionand cyst formation: 204-209.- 11.4. Dinoflagellae ecology: 209-212.Steidinger, K.A. 1997. Dinoflagellates. – In: Tomas, C.R. (ed.), Identifying marine phyto-plankton, Academic Press, San Diego, read the introduction, pp.387-390.
1.2. Some basic features of dinoflagellates
n examining plankton samples, dinoflagellates can normally be recognized by theircharacteristic nucleus which has permanently condensed chromosomes. Another charac-teristic feature is the amphiesma or theca, which is a complex of membranes and wallmaterial surrounding the cell. Species in which the wall material consists of cellulose platesthat can be observed in the light microscope are colloquially called 'armoured' or 'thecate' asopposed to 'unarmoured' or 'naked' species without cellulose plates. When preserved, thearmoured species usually retain their morphology and therefore can be identified inpreserved samples, while the unarmoured species loose their morphological characteristicsoften making identification impossible. Species belonging in the orders Prorocentrales,Dinophysiales, Gonyaulacales are armoured while species of the Gymnodiniales and theNoctilucales are unarmoured. For general textbooks on dinoflagellates the reader is referredto Spector (1984) and Taylor (1987).
1.3. Diversity of dinoflagellates
There are about 2000 extant species of dinoflagellates most of which (ca. 1700) occur inmarine or brackish water habitats. The diversity of the dinoflagellates are illustrated in Fig. 1(see also Sournia 1986,
Larsen & Sournia 1991
Harmful dinoflagellates, Introduction, page 3 of 10 

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