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III.2 Prorocentrales

III.2 Prorocentrales

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Taxonomy, Morphology, Identification, HAB sp.
Taxonomy, Morphology, Identification, HAB sp.

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Published by: Cesar Alarcon Zapata on Jul 19, 2011
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IOC Science and Communication Centre on Harmful Algae University of Copenhagen 
Harmful dinoflagellates, Prorocentrum, page 1 of
Module III
Section 2, Prorocentrales
(2 hours)
2.1. Suggested reading2.2. Genus
TaxonomyMorphologyIdentification of species2.3. Harmful species2.4. ReferencesReferences in
are available as pdf files on the course CD.
2.1. Suggested reading
Present document and the following paper:
Tindall, D.R. & Morton, S.L. 1998
. Community dynamics and physiology of epiphytic/benthicdinoflagellates associated with ciguatera. – In: Anderson, D.M., Cembella, A.D. & Halle-graeff, G.M. (eds), Physiological ecology of harmful algal blooms, NATO ASI series,Series G, Ecological sciences, vol. 41, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 291-313.
2.2. Genus Prorocentrum
The genus
was described by Ehrenberg with
P. micans 
as the only species,and since then more than 70 species of
Cienkowski 1881 havebeen described.
is now considered a synonym of
by most authors,although recently
et al 
. (1997)
argued convincingly for the reinstatement of
.Major taxonomic and floristic accounts include
Schiller (1933),
Dodge (1975), and Steidinger(1997),
and for the harmful species particularly
Fukuyo (1981)
et al 
. (1999)
, andTaylor
et al 
. (2004).
et al 
. 1998
studied the phylogenetic relationship of some species of
Pearce & Hallegraeff
compared freshwater/brackish species with their marinecongeneric species.
Harmful dinoflagellates, Prorocentrum, page 2 of
The cells are laterally compressed, and composed of two large platelets and a number ofsmall plates in the flagellar area (see
Graham, Graham & Wilcox 2009
, p. 191, fig.11-10a).The left valve is more or less flat anteriorly, whereas the right valve has an excavation intowhich the platelets of the flagellar pore area are fitted. Some species possess (an) apicalspine(s). All known species of
have two chloroplasts.
Identification of species
The characters used to differentiate the species of
relate to the following features:cell shape and size, apical spine, pyrenoids, nucleus, and in particular surface structure andornamentation of the valves which in some cases can be observed only by scanning electronmicroscopy.
2.3. Harmful species
Some planktonic species of
P. micans 
) may form extensive blooms, butmost of these bloom-forming species do not produce toxins. Cultures of
P. cordatum 
) has been shown to produce toxins in the senescent growth phase (
et al 
), and blooms of this species seem to be reported still more often from around the world(
et al 
. 2005
). Also the recently described planktonic species
P. arabianum 
is toxic(
et al 
. 2002
). Most harmful species of
are benthic or associated withsubstrates (
et al 
. 1994, Heil
et al.
1998, Tindall & Morton 1998),
see also page 4.It should be noted that one of the most common benthic species reported as
P. mexicanum 
 in the recent literature has been re-investigated by
Cortes-Altamirano & Sierra-Beltran(2003)
who concluded that the correct name for this species is
P. rhathymum 
is a different species clearly differentiated by the pattern formed by the valvepores. The species boundaries in
Prorcentrum lima 
has been studied by
et al 
who concluded that
P. arenareum 
Faust 1994 is synonymous with
P. lima 
2.4. References
Cortés-Altamirano, R. & Sierra-Beltrán, A.P. 2003
. Morphology and taxonomy of
Proro- centrum mexicanum 
and reinstatement of
Prorocentrum rhathymum 
(Dinophyceae). – J. Phycol. 39: 221-225.Dodge, J.D. 1975. The Prorocentrales (Dinophyceae. II. Revision of the taxonomy within thegenus
. – Bot. J. Linn. Soc.71:103-125.Faust, M.A. 1990. Morphologic details of six benthic species of
(Pyrrophyta)from a mangrove island, Twin Cays, Belize, including two new species. – J. Phycol.26: 548-558.Faust, M. A. 1993a.
Prorocentrum belizeanum, Prorocentrum elegans, Prorocentrum carri- baeum 
, three new benthic species (Dinophyceae) from Mangrove Island, TwinCays, Belize. – J. Phycol. 29: 100-107.Faust, M. A. 1993b. Three new benthic species of
(Dinophyceae) from TwinCays, Belize:
P. maculosum 
sp. nov.,
P. foraminosum 
sp. nov.,
P. formosum 
sp. nov. – Phycologia 32: 410-418.
Harmful dinoflagellates, Prorocentrum, page 3 of
 Faust, M. A. 1994. Three new benthic species of
(Dinophyceae) from CarrieBow Cay, Belize:
P. sabulosum 
sp. nov,
P. sculptile 
sp. nov.,
P. arenarium 
 – J. Phycol. 30: 755-763.
Faust, M. A. 1997. Three new benthic species of
(Dinophyceae) from Belize:
P. norrisianum 
sp. nov.
P. tropicalis 
sp. nov., and
P. reticulatum 
sp. nov. – J.Phycol. 33: 851-858.
 Faust, M.A., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. 1999
. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus
(Dinophyceae). – ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton, Copen-hagen, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 12 pp.
Fukuyo, Y. 1981
. Taxonomical study on benthic dinoflagellates collected in coral reefs. -Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 47: 967-978.
Graham, L.E. & Wilcox, L.W. 2000
. Algae, Prentice-Hall Int., London.
 Grzebyk, D., Berland, B., Thomassin, B.A., Bosi, C. & Arnoux, A. 1994
. Ecology ofciguateric dinoflagellates in the coral reef complex of Mayotte Island (S.W.IndianOcean). – J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 178: 51-66.
Grzebyk, D., Denardou, A., Berland, B. & Pouchus, Y.F. 1997
Evidence of a new toxin inthe red-tide dinoflagellate
Prorocentrum minimum 
. – J. Plankton Res. 19:1111-1124.
Grzebyk, D., Sako, Y., Berland, B. 1998.
Phylogenetic analysis of nine species of
Proro- centrum 
(Dinophyceae) inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences, morphologicalcomparisons and description of
Prorocentrum panamensis 
sp. nov. – J. Phycol. 34:1055-1068.
Heil, C.A., Bird, P. & Dennison, W.C. 1998
. Macroalgal habitat preference of ciguateradinoflagellates at Heron Island, A coral key in the south eastern Great Barrier Reef,Australia. – In: Reguera, B., Blanco, J., Fernández, M.L. & Wyatt, T. (eds), HarmfulAlgae, Proceedings of the VIII International Conference on Harmful Algae, Xunta deGalicia, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp. 52-53.
Heil, C. A., Glibert, P.M. & Fan, C. 2005.
Prorocentrum minimum 
(Pavillard) Schiller. Areview of a harmful algal bloom species of growing worldwide importance. – HarmfulAlgae 4: 449-470.Hoppenrath, M. 2000. A new marine sand-dwelling
P. clipeus 
sp. nov.(Dinophyceae) from Helgoland, German Bight, North Sea. – European Journal ofProtistology 36: 29-33.
Lu, D., Goebel, J., Qi, Y., Zou, J., Han, X., Gao, T. & Li, Y. 2005.
Morphological andgenetic study of
Prorocentrum donghaiense 
Lu from the East China Sea, andcomparison with some related
species, - Harmful Algae 4: 493-505.
McLachlan, J.L., Boalch, G.T. & Jahn, R. 1997
. Reinstatement of the genus
 (Dinophyceae), Prorocentrophycidae) and an assessment of
Prorocentrum lima 
. – Phycologia 36: 38-46.Morton, S.L. 1998. Morphology and toxicology of
Prorocentrum faustiae 
sp. nov., a new toxicspecies of non-planktonic dinoflagellate from Heron Island, Australia. – BotanicaMarina 41: 565-569.
Morton, S.L., Faust, M.A., Fairey, E.I. & Moeller, P.D.R. 2002.
Morphology and toxicologyof
Prorocentrum arabianum 
sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a toxic planktonic dinoflagellatefrom the Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea. – Harmful Algae 1: 393-400.
Nagahama, Y., Murray, S., Tomaru, A. & Fukuyo, Y. 2011
. Species boundaries in thedinoflagellate
Prorocentrum lima 
(Dinophyceae, Prorocentrales), based onmorphological and phylogenetic characters. – J. Phycol. 47: 178-189.
Pearce, I. & G. M. Hallegraeff. 2004
. Genetic affinities, ecophysiology and toxicity of
Prorocentrum playfairii 
P. foveolata 
(Dinophyceae)) from Tasmanianfreshwaters. Phycologia 43 (3): 271-281. 

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