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Congressional Research Service: The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Congressional Research Service: The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

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Published by Kevin Earl Dayhoff
Congressional Research Service: The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases, by D. Andrew Austin, Analyst in Economic Policy and Minday R. Levitt, Analyst in Public Finance, January 28, 2010. http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL31967_20100128.pdf

See also: Kevin Dayhoff The Tentacle: Mr. Jefferson's Dinner Deal on the national debt in 1790

July 20, 2011

Mr. Jefferson’s Dinner Deal

Kevin E. Dayhoff

As the August 2 deadline looms for the U.S. to raise the debt ceiling, many avid Washington-watchers are passing the popcorn as the drama continues to unfold. For those who study economic history, this fight is as old as the Republic itself.

As to whether or not a compromise will be made by the warring Republicans and Democrats – well, that remains to be seen, now doesn’t it. Mega-barrels of ink are being spilled over the issue; wade into it at your own peril but carry a large bottle of aspirin.

Taegan Goddard’s Political Wire calls to our attention some recent commentary by Warren Buffet, who was quoted by NBC News: “‘That’s a level of immaturity that I don’t believe even this Congress is up to’ – ‘predicting Congress will not allow the United States to default on its debt after this ‘little fight in our sandbox.’ ”

Many agree with Mr. Buffet’s comments, according to Kristen Weller: “We cannot go to Aug. 2 and tell the rest of the world, ‘Look because we’re having this little fight in our sandbox back here, that we’re going to essentially default on obligations of the United States for the first time in our history.’ ”

And just what is the history of the national debt?…

[…]

However, debate over the national debt dates to the beginning days of the United States and really marks one of the first instances of acrimonious deadlock in the history of our government.

The year was 1790 and the flashpoint of contention was Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton’s “Assumption Plan.”

On September 21, 1789, Congress asked Secretary Hamilton to prepare what has become known as the first “Report on Public Credit” in reference to the huge amount of debt individuals and particular states had run-up during the American Revolution. Just as with today, some of the debt was owed to American citizens; however, much of the money had been borrowed from foreign governments…. http://www.thetentacle.com/ShowArticle.cfm?mydocid=4527

[20100128 CRS RL31967_The Debt Limit History]

National debt, Congress, history, American Revolution, Alexander Hamilton, Assumption Plan,
Congressional Research Service: The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases, by D. Andrew Austin, Analyst in Economic Policy and Minday R. Levitt, Analyst in Public Finance, January 28, 2010. http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL31967_20100128.pdf

See also: Kevin Dayhoff The Tentacle: Mr. Jefferson's Dinner Deal on the national debt in 1790

July 20, 2011

Mr. Jefferson’s Dinner Deal

Kevin E. Dayhoff

As the August 2 deadline looms for the U.S. to raise the debt ceiling, many avid Washington-watchers are passing the popcorn as the drama continues to unfold. For those who study economic history, this fight is as old as the Republic itself.

As to whether or not a compromise will be made by the warring Republicans and Democrats – well, that remains to be seen, now doesn’t it. Mega-barrels of ink are being spilled over the issue; wade into it at your own peril but carry a large bottle of aspirin.

Taegan Goddard’s Political Wire calls to our attention some recent commentary by Warren Buffet, who was quoted by NBC News: “‘That’s a level of immaturity that I don’t believe even this Congress is up to’ – ‘predicting Congress will not allow the United States to default on its debt after this ‘little fight in our sandbox.’ ”

Many agree with Mr. Buffet’s comments, according to Kristen Weller: “We cannot go to Aug. 2 and tell the rest of the world, ‘Look because we’re having this little fight in our sandbox back here, that we’re going to essentially default on obligations of the United States for the first time in our history.’ ”

And just what is the history of the national debt?…

[…]

However, debate over the national debt dates to the beginning days of the United States and really marks one of the first instances of acrimonious deadlock in the history of our government.

The year was 1790 and the flashpoint of contention was Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton’s “Assumption Plan.”

On September 21, 1789, Congress asked Secretary Hamilton to prepare what has become known as the first “Report on Public Credit” in reference to the huge amount of debt individuals and particular states had run-up during the American Revolution. Just as with today, some of the debt was owed to American citizens; however, much of the money had been borrowed from foreign governments…. http://www.thetentacle.com/ShowArticle.cfm?mydocid=4527

[20100128 CRS RL31967_The Debt Limit History]

National debt, Congress, history, American Revolution, Alexander Hamilton, Assumption Plan,

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Published by: Kevin Earl Dayhoff on Jul 20, 2011
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CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases
D. Andrew Austin
Analyst in Economic Policy
Mindy R. Levit
Analyst in Public Finance January 28, 2010
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.govRL31967
 
The Debt Limit: History and Recent IncreasesCongressional Research Service
Summary
Total debt of the federal government can increase in two ways. First, debt increases when thegovernment sells debt to the public to finance budget deficits and acquire the financial resourcesneeded to meet its obligations. This increases
debt held by the public
. Second, debt increaseswhen the federal government issues debt to certain government accounts, such as the SocialSecurity, Medicare, and Transportation trust funds, in exchange for their reported surpluses. Thisincreases
debt held by government accounts
. The sum of 
debt held by the public
and
debt held bygovernment accounts
is the total federal debt. Surpluses generally reduce debt held by the public,while deficits raise it.A statutory limit has restricted total federal debt since 1917 when Congress passed the SecondLiberty Bond Act. Congress has raised the debt limit eight times since 2001. Deficits each yearsince 2001 and the persistent increases in debt held by government accounts repeatedly raised thedebt to or near the limit in place at the time. Congress raised the limit in June 2002, and byDecember 2002 the U.S. Department of the Treasury asked Congress for another increase, whichwas passed in May 2003. In June 2004, the Treasury asked for another debt limit increase. AfterCongress recessed in mid-October 2004 without acting, the Secretary of the Treasury toldCongress that the actions he was taking to avoid exceeding the debt limit would suffice onlythrough mid-November. Congress approved a debt limit increase in a post-election session, whichthe President signed on November 19, 2004.In 2005, reconciliation instructions in the FY2006 budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 95) included adebt limit increase. With no action having been taken by December 2005, the Secretary of theTreasury sent several letters warning Congress that the Treasury would exhaust its options toavoid default by mid-March 2006. Congress passed an increase in mid-March, which thePresident signed on March 20. The House’s adoption of the conference report on the FY2008budget resolution in the spring of 2007 automatically created and deemed passed legislation(H.J.Res. 43) raising the debt limit by $850 billion to $9,815 billion. The Senate approved theresolution on September 27, 2007, and it was signed by the President two days later.The current economic slowdown led to sharply higher estimates of the FY2008 and FY2009deficits, which led to a series of debt limit increases. A debt limit increase was included in theHousing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (H.R. 3221) and signed into law (P.L. 110-289) onJuly 30. The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (H.R. 1424), signed into law onOctober 3 (P.L. 110-343), raised the debt limit again. The debt limit was increased for the thirdtime in less than a year with the passage of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 onFebruary 13, 2009 (ARRA; H.R. 1), which was signed into law on February 17, 2009 (P.L. 111-5), which raised the debt limit to $12,104 billion.The House’s adoption of the conference report on the FY2010 budget resolution (S.Con.Res. 13)on April 29, 2009, triggered the automatic passage of a separate measure (H.J.Res. 45) to raise thedebt limit to $13.029 trillion that was then sent to the Senate. In August 2009, according to mediareports, Treasury Secretary Geithner said that the debt limit would be reached in mid-October,although the Treasury later stated that the limit would not be reached until mid or late December2009. H.R. 4314, passed by the House on December 16, 2009, and by the Senate on December24, raised the debt limit to $12.394 trillion when the President signed the measure (P.L. 111-123)on December 28. On January 28, the Senate passed an amended version of H.J.Res. 45. Thisreport, written with the assistance of Joseph McCormack, will be updated as events warrant.
 
The Debt Limit: History and Recent IncreasesCongressional Research Service
Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................................1
 
The Debt Limit and the Treasury...........................................................................................1
 
Why Have a Debt Limit?.......................................................................................................1
 
A Brief History of the Federal Debt Limit...................................................................................2
 
Origins of the Federal Debt Limit..........................................................................................2
 
World War II and After..........................................................................................................3
 
The Debt Ceiling in the Last Decade...........................................................................................3
 
The Debt Limit Issue in 2002................................................................................................5
 
Resolving the Debt Limit Issue in 2002...........................................................................7
 
The Debt Limit Issue in 2003................................................................................................8
 
The Debt Limit Issue in 2004................................................................................................9
 
The Debt Limit Issue in 2005, 2006, and 2007....................................................................10
 
The Economic Slowdown and Federal Debt........................................................................11
 
Fiscal Policy Considerations.........................................................................................11
 
Raising the Debt Ceiling in 2008 and 2009....................................................................11
 
Revised Deficit Estimates.............................................................................................15
 
Concluding Comments..............................................................................................................15
 
Further Reading........................................................................................................................17
 
Figures
Figure 1. Components of Federal Debt As a Percentage of GDP, FY1940-FY2009......................6
 
Tables
Table 1. Components of Debt Subject to Limit, FY1996-FY2009................................................4
 
Table 2. Increases in the Debt Limit Since January 2000...........................................................14
 
Table A-1.Components of Debt Subject to Limit by Month, September 2001-November2009......................................................................................................................................18
 
Appendixes
Appendix. Debt Subject to Limit by Month Since September 2001............................................18
 
Contacts
Author Contact Information......................................................................................................21
 

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