Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Thit Aung

Thit Aung

Ratings: (0)|Views: 61,969|Likes:
Published by ko latt

More info:

Published by: ko latt on Jul 20, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/22/2011

pdf

text

original

 
r*¾Zif;
137
2011 ckESpf? Zlvd kifv
 
137
2011 ckESpf? Zlvd kifv
 
r*¾Zif;
2011 ckESpf? Zlvd kifv
138
onf/ ajcaxmufawGacG,d kifvJuscsdefol U&ifbwfud k zdvd kufawmh ol U&ifwpfckvHk;wGifaoGrsm; 'va[m ,d kpD;usvd k YaeNyD/ qlnHaom aoewfoHrsm;? rSefuG JoHrsm;? "mwfyH kjyKwfusoHrsm;jzif hol Unmbufpm;yG J&SnfBuD;ay:rS vlrsm;ud koJBuD;rJBuD; ypfaeoHrsm;/ olUrsufvH k;rsm; wpfpwpfyd kí jyma0vmonf/ ,rf;cd k;rsm; ydwfarS mifNyD; pl;&SrGef;usyfvd k Yvmonf/ ,rf;cd k;rsm;Mum;rSol UeHab;wGif vJusaeaom t&dyfwpfck? aemufxyfpm;yG JatmufwGif acGacGav; vJusaeaom t&dyfwpfckud kxyfjrifvd kuf& onf/ a00g;aeaom yH k&dyfrsm;? rl;aemuf&Da0 tjrif tm½H krsm;u wjznf;jznf; ydwfarS mifoG m;onf/ bmrSrjrif awmhol UcE¨ mud k,fBuD; Murf;jyifay:u aoG;td kifawGxJud k vJNydKusoG m;cJ hNyD/ ol Ub,fbufwGifawmhol Ua'gif;½kyf ukvm;xd kifBuD;uvnf; NydKvJvsuf? pl;&Saom anmfeH Y rsm;jzif haxmif;axmif;xaeaom ,rf;cd k;rsm;u ydwfzH k; rnf;arS mifvsuf.../ a&S UqH k;rSawmfrD*ef;ud kifxm;aom aoewform; u ol Uud krJNyD; ypfcwfaecsdefwGifusefwpfOD;u yapmuf yH kpm;yG J\ ,mbufpm;yG J&SnfwGifxk difaeolrsm;ud kawmfrD *ef;jzifhteD;uyfypfcwfaeonf/ pm;yGJwGif&S daeol? tm;vHk;usnfqefrsm;udk vnfpif;cHaeMu&csdefxdyfpm;yG JwGifol Ub,fbufab;ü xd kifaeolwpfOD;ESif h vuf0Jbufpm;yG J&SnfrSvlwpfOD;uvnf; usnfqefrsm; Mum;wGifwdrf;a&S mifxGufajy;í wHcg;aygufrSausmfum cef;rtjyifbufod k Ya&mufoG m;Muonf/ vuf0Jbuf pm;yG J&SnfwGif&S daom tjcm;ESpfOD;rS m wpfa,mufvuf wpfa,mufqG JNyD; Murf;jyifay:wGifxdyfpm;yG JESif h,SOf vsufarS mufNyD; 0yfvd kufMuonf/ vuf0Jbufud kt"du ypfaeaom aoewform; vli,fu pdwfvIyf&S m;pG mjzif h 'l;axmufvsufvd kufypfonf/ od k Yaomfwqwfqwf wkefaeaomvufrsm;u tavhtusif hodyfr&S dvSojzif h arS muf0yfaeolrsm;ud krxd/ usnfqefrsm;u Murf;jyifESif h aemufbuftkwfeH&Hudkom xdrSefwdk;xGufaeonf/od k Yaomfxd kvuf0Jbufpm;yG J\ tpGefqH k;wGifusef&S dae aom olwpfOD;uawmha&S mifwdrf;csdefr&vd kuf/ cH kay: wGifyifxd kifvsufom; aoewfusnfqefrsm;ud kvnfpif; cHae&onf/ oH k;OD;pvH k;rS m vuf0Jbufud kypfcwfMujyef onf/ Murf;jyifESif haemufbuftkwfeH&Hud kxdNyD; jyef aumif;uifu tH k YarS mifaeonf/ wpfcsufwpfcsuf wd k;a0S Ywd kufcwfvmaom avjyif;aMumif hwzG JzG Jusae aom rd k;aygufrsm;u apGapmif;apmif; jzpfoG m;Muonf/ opfud kif;rsm;u ykcufvT Jovd k,drf;xd k;í rd k;aygufrsm;ud k ykwfcsvsuf/ rd k;pd kopf&Gufrsm;u ,drf;xd k;opfud kif;rsm; ay:wGifavajyESif hwzswfzswf/ xk d YaemuftwefMum atmifavNidrfoG m;onf/ aumif;uifu tenf;i,f Munfvifvmonf/ paerd k;zG Jrsm;uawmhwzG JzG Jusvsuf &S daeao;onf/ rd k;yG m;rIefrsm;u wpfpwpfp BuD;vmovd krd k;usoH uvnf; yd kodyfonf;vmonf/ at;pufaeaom avjyif; u wpfcsufwd k;a0S Ywd kufcsvd kufonf/ ]0kef;ceJ} tpGefqH k; wHcg;rBuD;wpfcsyfyGif hoG m;onf/ ][dwf}[laom toH eufBuD;jzif hppf0wfpH k0wfxm;olESpfOD; wHcg;ud kwGef;zGif h NyD; a&S Uqif haemufqif htavmwBuD; wd k;0ifvmonf/ taemufrS m aemufwpfOD;? tm;vH k;u armif;jyefaoewf rsm; ud k,fpDcsdef&G,fvsufaemufqH k;wpfa,mufu tcef; 0wGifausmay;vsuf½H k;apvkvifud kcsdef&G,fxm;onf/ wpfa,mufrSrxeJ Y? xGufrajy;eJ Y[k[def;a[mufoHrsm; ay;vsuf ay(40)ywfvnfcefY&Sdaom tcef;BuD;\ajrmufbufrSawmifbufod k Yuef Yvef Yjzwf0ifvmonf/ tcef;wGif;rSvltm;vH k;u rSifoufvsufwtH hwMojzpf vsuf? vuf,mbufpm;yG JrSvlrsm;uvnf; vnfjyefvSnf h Munf hvk dufMuonf/ aoewform;rsm;u *i,fyH kpm;yG J tv,fod k Ya&mufvmMuNyD/ csufcsif;qd kovd kola'gojzpfoG m;onf/ xd k fif&m rSjAKef;ceJx&yfvd kufNyD; vuf0g;jzef YumvsufrsufES m csif;qd kifrSaoewfcsdef&G,fxm;olrsm;ud kolvSrf;atmf ajymvd kufonf/ od k Yaomfol UtoHu ]'def;}ceJxGufay: vmaom aoewfoHatmufrS m aysmufuG,foG m;onf/ olxd kifaeaom ukvm;xd kifBuD;ay:u a'gif;½kyfud kazmif; ceJxdonf/ olab;od k Ywdrf;a&S mifNyD; ud k,fud k0yfí ajcvSrf;vd kufcsdefwGifol Ub,fbuf&iftH kqDrSjyif;xef pl;atmif haom a0'emESif htwl]'def;]ceJaygufuG JoH aemufwpfck? olacG,d kifoG m;&mrStm;,lí xyfvSrf; vd kufcsdefwGifaemufxyfw'uf'uftoHrsm; qlnHpG m xGufay:vmonf/ ol U&ifbwf? OD;acgif;ESif hcE¨ mud k,f tES H YqDok d Yjyif;xefaom a0'emrsm; pkjyHKwd k;0ifvmMu
 
r*¾Zif;
139
2011 ckESpf? Zlvd kifv
uefvmaom usnfqefrsm;? ,rf;cd k;rsm;Mum;wGifrd k;oD; rd k;aygufyrm qlnHyGufavmxaeonf/ usnfqefwpf awmif hu tdyfNyD;0yfaeolwpfOD;\ nbufvufol<u,f ud kazmuf0ifoG m;onf/ aemufusnfawmif hu xd kol\ wifyg;ESifheHBudK;Mum;ud k wd k;0ifvmonf/ xdk Yaemuf aoewform;rsm; typf&yfNyD; ,rf;cd k;rsm; a0aeaom tcef;BuD;twGif;rSjyefajy;xGufoG m;Muonf/ ycH k;wGifjcaoF h½kyfwyfxm;onf h(12)eHygwfppfwyf wHqdyfrsm;ESif htpdrf;&if ha&mifppf,leDazmif;0wfvlav;OD; u armif;jyefaoewfrsm;ud ktoif htaetxm; csdef&G,f vsuf,rf;cd k;rsm; a0aeaom cef;rBuD;xJrSajy;xGuf vmMuonf/ vloG m;pMuø wGif]rqd kifolruyfeJ Ya[h}qd kum avSum;qDod k YqufNyD; ajy;oG m;Muonf/ vltcsKd Uu ykef;atmif;vd kufonf/ avSum;tpyfta&muftcef; twGif;rSajcmufvH k;yl;ud kifvsufajy;xGufvmaom ppf,l eDazmif;0wfvli,fESif hyufyif;qH krdMuonf/ taemuf bufrSypfypf[laom toHrsm; xGufay:vm\/ a&S UqH k; aoewform;u ol UvufxJrSpwif;*ef;jzif hypfcsvd kuf onf/ ]'uf'uf'uf'uf}[laom toHrsm;jzif hvli,f u tcef;wGif;od k YaemufjyefvJusoG m;cJ hNyD/ aoewfud kif vlav;OD;u avSum;rStajy;qif;oGm;&if; toif h apmif haeaom *spfum;ay: tvkt,ufwufvd kufMu onf/ tay:&SyftusÐtjzLESif hppfabmif;bD0wfxm;aom um;armif;orm;u um;pufEdI;onf/ pufurEdk;?aoewfud kifwpfOD;u 0ifíEd I;onf/ um;pufEd k;oG m;onf/ xd k YaemufwzG JzG Jusaeaom rd k;aygufrsm;ESif h,drf;xd k;ae aom opfudkif;rsm;atmuf jcH0if;us,fBuD;twGif;rSuwå&mvrf;rBuD;ay:od k Ywpf&S defxd k; b,fbuf,mOfaMum twk dif; *spfum;av;u auG UcsKd; armif;xGufoG m;avNyD/ armif;xGufoG m;aom *spfum;av;\ um;eHygwfud kjcH0if; us,fBuD; nmbufaxmif hvrf;qH kteD; pywfvrf;ay:u rd k;umtusÐ0wfxm;aom vlESpfOD;u vSrf;Munf haeonf/ *spfum;eHygwfu
(RC-1814)
/ xk dolESpfOD;u wpfa,muf ud kwpfa,mufMunf hNyD; acgif;ndwfvd kufMuonf/ vGefcJ haom rdepftenf;i,fcef Yu pywfvrf; ac: Ad kvfatmifausmfvrf;ud krsufES mrlxm;aom yapmufyH k pm;yG J\ tv,fwGifolxd kifaeonf/ ol Upm;yG JrS m (3)ay (10)aycef Y&S dNyD; ol U0JbufESif h,mbufpm;yG JESpfvH k;u (18) aycef Y&Snfonf/ olum; ESpfaygif;wpf&mausmfe,fcsJ U vufatmufusa&mufcJ haom jrefrmjynfud kvGwfvyfí tcsKyftjcmyd kifEd kifiHjyefjzpf&efud k,fusKd;riJ hrem;rae OD;aqmifBudK;yrf;aeol? touf(33) ESpfom &S dao;aom xd kvli,fonfbk&ifcHtrIaqmiftzG J U\ 'kwd,Ouú| (od k Yr[kwf ) 0efBuD;tzG J Uacgif;aqmif? ,aeYtac: 0efBuD; csKyf? wpfenf;tm;jzif hvGwfvyfa&;tBudK wd kif;jyKjynf jyKvTwfawmf,m,Dtpd k;&tzG J U\ 0efBuD;csKyf? ppfa&; 0efBuD;ESifh EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD; wm0efrsm;udkvnf;,lxm;&ovd kwd kif;jyKjynfjyKvTwfawmftajccHOya'a&; qG Ja&;wGifvnf; OD;aqmifae&olxd kvli,fum; OD;atmif qef;/ uRefawmfwk d Ycspfaom Ad kvfcsKyf/ ,ckawmhaoG; td kifBuD;rsm; jyef YusJaeaom Murf;jyifay:wGifNydKvJvsuf/ OD;acgif;wGifaoewf'Pf&mwpfcsuf? &ifbwfwGifoH k; csufESif hpkpkaygif; (13)csufxdrSefxm;NyD; cE¨ mud k,fBuD;u 0dnmOfuif;rJ hvsufrEÅ av; yd k;wd kufyH kay:rSaoG;rsm;u 'va[m ,k dpD;usaeonf/ oeyfcef;a&mifAefaumuf vH kcsnfESif hoJBudK;tjzL av,mOfysHzdeyfuvnf; aoG;td kif xJrS m vl;vd k Y/ ol UteD; Murf;jyifay:u aoG;td kifrsm;xJwGifawmh vloH k;OD;/ wpfOD;u NAdwdoQppfwyfrSt*Fvdyft&m&Sd wpfOD;? Ad kvfcsKyfESif hteD; teD;qH k;ae&mwGifvJusaeolu 0efBuD;tpnf;ta0;wGif pDrHcsufaqmif&GufrIrsm;udktwGif;0efud k,fpm; vma&mufwifjy&olvrf;yef;quf oG,fa&; 'kwd,twGif;0efOD;tkef;armif? pm;yG Jatmuf aoG;td kifxJacGacGav; vJusaeolum; (1920 -1921) &efukefaumvdyfoydwfaumifpD'kwd,Ouú|rSpwifí acwftqufqufEk difiHa&; wpd kufrwfrwfaqmif&Guf cJ holppftwGif; tpd k;&tzG J U 'kwd,0efBuD;csKyfjzpfcJ hol b@ma&;0efBuD; ocifjr/ ,mbufpm;yG J&SnfBuD; \ xd kifcH krsm;ay:wGifyifacgif;id kufpd kufusKd;usNidrfoufae olrsm;uvnf; aoG;rsm;yGufyGufpD;usvsuf? wpfOD;u aq;½H ka&mufNyD; rGef;vG Jyd kif;rStouf0dnmOfcsKyf&onf/ xd kolum; OD;aES mufud kazmufoG m;onf h'Pf&mtygt0if 'Pf&mig;csuf&cJ holjyefMum;a&;0efBuD; 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd/ usefoH k;OD;uawmhxd kifcH kay:wGifyiftoufqH k;½I H;cJ h&aom trsKd;om;pDrHudef;ESif hynma&;0efBuD; OD;&mZwf? ukefoG,f a&;ESif haxmufyH ha&;0efBuD; OD;b0if;? pufrIvufrIESif h

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->