Substance Use Problems and SeriousDelinquency Are Linked
Researchers consistently nd a strong link between substance use problems and serious delinquency, regardlesso how they structure the inquiry.
Studies o youth in juvenile court demonstrate that amajority o courtinvolved adolescents have recently used illegal substances and that more serious and chronic adolescent oenders have used more substances andare more likely to qualiy or a diagnosis o a substanceuse disorder (Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program, 1999; Huizinga and JakobChien, 1998; Wilsonet al., 2001; Teplin et al., 2002).
Investigators who study large samples o community youth observe a strong association between reportedserious oending and substance use in these groups(Johnston, O’Malley, and Bachman, 2006; Ford,2005).
Researchers who ollow adolescent oenders over timend that substance use at one age is one o the mostconsistent indicators o continued serious oendingat a later age (Dembo et al., 1993; Lipsey and Derzon, 1998; Dembo, Wareham, and Schmeidler, 2007;D’Amico et al., 2008; Hussong et al., 2004).The issue o when and how individuals develop thesecooccurring patterns o substance use and illegal activity is less clear. Some o the same actors that put an indi vidual at risk or involvement in criminality also put thatindividual at risk or substance use problems (Hawkins,Catalano, and Miller, 1992; Iacono, Malone, and McGue,2008; Mamorstein, Iacono, and McGue, 2009). Parentalsubstance use disorders, poor parenting, confictual amily environments, and dispositional actors such as sensationseeking and behavioral disinhibition place an adolescent athigher risk o using drugs and alcohol and/or engaging inillegal acts (Hawkins, Catalano, and Miller, 1992).In addition, adolescents with poor aect regulation, highlevels o environmental stress, or depression may usedrugs and alcohol to medicate themselves as a copingmechanism. However, these relations are less consistently ound—especially once “externalizing behaviors” (e.g.,substance use and criminal oending) are considered—and oten appear in complex interactions (Hersh and Hussong, 2009). The relation between negative mood andalcohol use has been reported to be stronger among adolescents with
conduct problems (Hussong, Gould,and Hersh, 2008).
Substance Use and Oending Fluctuatein Similar Patterns Over Time
It is clear that these two behaviors are associated overtime, although there does not seem to be a clear progression rom one to the other. Several investigators reportevidence that behavior problems and aggression at a younger age predict later adolescent illicit substance use(Henry, Tolan, and GormanSmith, 2001; Kellam et al.,1983; Mason, Hitchings, and Spoth, 2007; Wiesner, Kim,and Capaldi, 2005), escalations in use over time (Hussongand Chassin, 1998), and later diagnoses o substance abuseand dependence (Chassin et al., 1999; Disney et al., 1999).In addition, studies suggest that early substance use predicts subsequent criminal behavior in adolescents (Huizinga, Loeber, and Thornberry, 1995; Bui, Ellickson, andBell, 2000; Ford, 2005; French et al., 2000; Loeber andFarrington, 2000).Recent advances in statistical methods (e.g., joint trajectory analyses) have produced other insights into thistemporal relationship. Joint trajectory analyses allow theresearcher to examine the comparability o the patterns o these two behaviors as they progress over the same timeperiod (Nagin, 2005). Research using this technique hasdemonstrated that criminal behavior and substance useollow parallel courses over time (Sullivan and Hamilton,2007), suggesting a reciprocal relationship between thetwo behaviors. Whether the relationship is sequential orreciprocal can be debated; it may be that the relationshipollows dierent patterns in dierent groups o youth. It isclear, however, that delinquent behavior and substance useproblems go hand in hand in adolescence.
Multiple Mechanisms May Link theBehaviors
Substance use and delinquency can interrelate in several ways over the course o adolescence to promote dual in volvement and set the stage or a dicult entry into youngadulthood.Substance use in and o itsel is certainly not the primary cause o involvement in illegal activity. Substance use,however, may initiate or heighten the risk o oendingeither independently or in conjunction with other risk actors. There are several ideas about the ways that substanceuse might exert this eect, as illustrated in gure 1.Substance use and oending might have a simple reciprocal relationship. “Being high” can lower inhibitions againstinvolvement in criminal acts (a psychopharmacologicalexplanation), and/or committing crime might be a way to obtain unds to support substance use (an instrumentalexplanation) (White et al., 2002; Goldstein, 1985). According to this ormulation, one behavior indicates thatthe other behavior is more likely to occur.