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Topic: Introduction
Reference web pages
Texts
Topic: Outline of statistical analysis
What is “statistical analysis”?
Populations and samples
Step 1: Outliers
Step 1: Explore & Describe
Step 2: Understand
What is a statistical model?
Step 3: “Prove”
Step 4: Predict
Topic: Types of variables
Nominal variables
Ordinal variables
Interval variables
Ratio variables
Continuous vs. discrete
Topic: Statistical Inference
Statistical inference
Inference from small samples
What does this really mean?
The null and alternate hypotheses
Signiﬁcance levels and types of error
Selecting a conﬁdence level
Topic: Data anlysis strategy
Non-spatial modelling
Exploratory spatial data analysis
Spatial modelling
Prediction
Topic: The Meuse soil pollution data set
Source
Topic: Probability
Probability
Frequentist concept of probability
Probability distributions
Probability vs. reality
The Binomial distribution
The Normal (Gaussian) probability distribution
Standardization
Evaluating Normality
Variability of small samples from a normal distribution
Transforming to Normality: Based on what criteria?
Transforming to Normality: Which transformation?
Example: log transform of a variable with positive skew
Topic: Non-spatial univariate Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)
Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA)
Graphical Univariate EDA
Summary statistics (1)
Summary statistics (2)
Cautions
Precision of the sample mean
Conﬁdence interval of the sample mean
Populations & Outliers
Topic: Bivariate EDA and correlation analysis
Bivariate scatterplot
Measuring the strength of a bivariate relation: theoretical
Measuring the strength of a bivariate relation: estimate from sample
Sample vs. population covariance and correlation
Example of correlation & conﬁdence interval: positive, strong
Example of correlation & conﬁdence interval: negative, weak
Topic: Regression
Actual vs. ﬁctional ‘causality’
Simple linear regression (one predictor)
Simple regression (continued)
Look before you leap!
Least squares estimates
Sums of squares
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
ANOVA for simple linear regression
Bivariate analysis: heavy metals vs. organic matter
Model: Regression of metal on organic matter
Good ﬁt vs. signiﬁcant ﬁt
Regression diagnostics
Examining the scatterplot with the ﬁtted line
Model diagnostics: regression of metal on organic matter
Revised model: Cd detection limit
Revised model: ﬂood class 1
Example: Meuse soil pollution
Categorical EDA
Example ANOVA
Difference between classes
Non-parametric statistics: Correlation
Parametric correlation – example of inappropriate use
Non-parametric correlation
Other non-parametric methods
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Statistical Analysis

# Statistical Analysis

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11/14/2012

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