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Enhancement of Optimized Linked State Routing Protocol for Energy Conservation

Enhancement of Optimized Linked State Routing Protocol for Energy Conservation

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Published by CS & IT
Computer Science & Information Technology (CS & IT)
Computer Science & Information Technology (CS & IT)

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Published by: CS & IT on Jul 21, 2011
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D.C. Wyld, et al. (Eds): CCSEA 2011, CS & IT 02, pp. 305–319, 2011.© CS & IT-CSCP 2011
DOI: 10.5121/csit.2011.1228
 
E
NHANCEMENT OF
O
PTIMIZED
L
INKED
S
 TATE
OUTING
P
ROTOCOL FOR 
E
NERGY 
C
ONSERVATION
 
Mayur Tokekar
1
and Radhika D. Joshi
2
1
Department of Electronics and Tele-communication, College of Engineering, Pune,India
mayurtokekar@gmail.com
2
Department of Electronics and Tele-communication, College of Engineering, Pune,India
rdj.extc@coep.ac.in
 A
 BSTRACT 
 Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructure less network in which nodes are mobile, self reconfigurable, battery powered. As nodes in MANET are battery powered, energy saving is animportant issue. We are using routing protocol to save energy so as to extend network lifetime.We have extended original Optimized Linked State Routing (OLSR) protocol by using twoalgorithms and named it as Enhancement in OLSR using Residual Energy approach (EOLSR- RE) and Enhancement in OLSR using Energy Consumption approach (EOLSR-EC). To analyzerelative performance of modified protocol EOLSR-RE and EOLSR-EC over OLSR, we performed various trials using Qualnet simulator. The performance of these routing protocols isanalyzed in terms of energy consumption, control overheads, end to end delay, packet deliveryratio. The modified OLSR protocol improves energy efficiency of network by reducing 20 %energy consumption and 50% control overheads.
 K 
 EYWORDS
 
 MANET, OLSR, EOLSR-RE, EOLSR-EC, QoS parameters.
1.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
Ad-hoc network is one of the emerging trends in wireless communication. In conventionalwireless communication there is need of base station for communication between two nodes.These base station leads to more infrastructure and more cost. An ad hoc network facilitatescommunication between nodes without the existence of an established infrastructure. Nodes areconnected randomly using ad-hoc networking and routing among the nodes is done by forwardingpackets from one to another which is decided dynamically. In general, MANET’s are formeddynamically by an autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless linkswithout using any centralized administration [1]. Mobile nodes that are within each other’s radiorange communicate directly via wireless links, while those that are far apart rely on other nodes torelay messages as routers. Node mobility in an ad hoc network causes frequent changes of thenetwork topology. The scopes of the ad-hoc network are also associated with dynamic topologychanges, bandwidth-constrained, energy constrained operation, limited physical security,mobility-induced packet losses, limited wireless transmission range, broadcast nature of thewireless medium, hidden terminal problem, packet losses due to transmission errors [2].In Energy constrained operations, it is important to save energy which results in improvement innetwork lifetime. For example, in battle fields soldiers are unable to charge node batteries so there
 
306 Computer Science & Information Technology (CS & IT)
 
is need for them to save battery power in such a way that communication can be possible forlonger time. To improve network lifetime there are different methodologies used at differentlayers of OSI model. Network layer is used for routing of packets from source to destination.There are number of routing protocols defined in MANET, for example DSDV, AODV, DSR,OLSR, ZRP etc. The main objective is to design routing protocol in such a way that it workseffectively in energy constrained applications. The main focus is on OLSR routing protocolmodification in network layer.The paper is organized as follows. Section II explains different types of routing protocols. SectionIII discusses the basics of OLSR protocol and study of related energy aware techniques. SectionIV discusses the proposed modification in OLSR. Section V represents the simulation details andQoS parameters. Section VI discusses results obtained by Qualnet simulator. Finally section VIIconcludes the paper with future work in section VIII.
2.
 
C
LASSIFICATION OF
R
OUTING
P
ROTOCOL
In MANET, each node between source and destination acts as routers. The routing of data packetsfrom source to destination are controlled by different routing protocols. Different routingprotocols are classified as shown in Figure;
 
Figure 1.Classification of Routing Protocols
2.1. Proactive routing protocols
In proactive routing, each node has one or more tables that contain the latest information of theroutes to any node in the network. Each node maintain routing tables and respond to the changesin the network topology by propagating updates throughout the network in order to maintain aconsistent view of the network. Many proactive routing protocols have been proposed, for e.g.Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Linked State Routing (OLSR) and soon.
2.2. Reactive protocols
Unlike proactive routing protocols, the reactive routing protocols create routes once a node wantsto transmit data to a destination. The source node initiates route discovery process by floodingroute query within the network. When the destination is reached, route reply request will be sent
 
Computer Science & Information Technology (CS & IT) 307
 
back to the source. Once the route has been found, it is maintained until either destinationbecomes inaccessible or the route is no longer desired then route discovery process will beinvoked again. Several reactive protocols have been proposed such as Dynamic Source Routingprotocol (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Temporary Ordered RoutingAlgorithm (TORA), and so on.
2.3. Hybrid routing protocols
In such network, hybrid routing protocols, i.e. combining proactive and reactive routingprotocols, are used in order to take advantages on these two routing protocols where proactivemaintains route in a cluster and reactive maintains route between clusters. Several hybrids routingprotocols have been proposed such as Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP), Zone-based HierarchicalLink State (ZHLS) and so on, but the most popular protocol is ZRP.
3. OLSR
 
O
VERVIEW AND
R
ELATED
W
ORK
 
OLSR [3] is proactive in nature, having routes immediately available in each node for alldestinations in the network. OLSR is an optimization of pure link state routing protocol like OpenShortest Path First (OSPF) [4].This optimization is related to concept of multipoint relay (MPR).A multipoint relay reduces the size of control messages. The use of MPRs also minimizesflooding of control traffic. Multipoint relays forward control messages, providing advantage of reduction in number of retransmissions of broadcast control messages. OLSR contains two typesof control messages: neighborhood and topology messages, known as Hello messages andTopology Control (TC) messages. OLSR provides two main functionalities: Neighbor Discoveryand Topology Dissemination. With the help of these two functionalities, each node computesroutes to all known destinations.
Figure 2.Selection of MPR and Broadcasting TC packets 
3.1. Selection of Multipoint Relay (MPR) using HELLO messages
Each node periodically broadcasts Hello messages, containing list of neighbors known to nodeand link status. The link status can be either symmetric or asymmetric, multipoint relay, or lostlink. The Hello messages are received by all one-hop neighbors and not forwarded. Hellomessages discover one-hop neighbors as well as its two-hop neighbors. Hello messages arebroadcast at regular interval (Hello_interval). The neighborhood and two hop neighborhoodinformation has holding time (Neighbor_hold_time), after which it is not valid. With the help of this information node selects its own set of MPRs among one-hop neighbors. Multipoint relayscomputed whenever there is change in one-hop neighborhood and two-hop neighborhood. MPR isone-hop neighbors with symmetric link, such that all two-hop neighbors has symmetric link with

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