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CNG

CNG

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Published by Amit Kumar Singh

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Published by: Amit Kumar Singh on Jul 21, 2011
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10/09/2011

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CNG & Its Benefits
 CNG or Compressed Natural Gas is the most viable alternate fuel for automobile companies in the near future. CNGis an alternated fuel which makes the use of compressed natural gas as a clean alternative to other fuels. Throughoutthe world there are 9.6 million vehicles running on CNG. CNG is viable or preferable because it has a host of advantages as against traditional fuels. CNG is environment friendly; economic, availability is in abundance and highin calorific value. An increasing number of vehicles a worldwide are being designed to run on CNG. Even existing vehicles can beconverted to run on CNG just with the switch of a button. CNG's can also be very easily refueled from any of theexisting gas stations.The central government has also stressed the importance of using CNG enabled vehicles. According to thegovernment all public transports including buses and autos would be running on CNG. Transports fitted with a CNGkit are already running in cities like New Delhi, Mumbai and Hyderabad. CNG cars are said to be safer than LPG carsalso because LPG is very highly combustible whereas CNG is very light in property and dissipates easily into the air.The life of the engine of the vehicle is also enhanced by CNG due to the fact that this gas is dry and does not leavebehind any residue when engaged in the combustion process to propel the car. Further more it restricts tuning of theengine drastically as compared to other fuel engines.CNG and LPG are slowly and steadily gaining ground in the automobile industry. They surely seem to be the fuel of the future. With the continuous rise in the price of petrol and diesel alternated fuels are becoming the preference of Indian consumers.CNG/LPG has been used on many commercial vehicles for years and now it is starting to filter down to regular commuter vehicles. CNG enables buses and three vehicles are already doing the rounds in some of the major metropolitans of India and they are soon to touch the roads of the other two tier cities in the country as well due to thealarming environmental damages caused by gasoline .
Compressed natural gas
(CNG) is afossil fuelsubstitute for gasoline(petrol),diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does producegreenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it ismuch safer than other fuels in the event of aspill(natural gas is lighter than air, and disperses quickly whenreleased). CNG may also be mixed withbiogas, produced fromlandfillsor wastewater , which doesn¶t increase the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere.CNG is made by compressingnatural gas(which is mainly composed of methane[CH
4
]), to less than 1% of thevolume it occupies atstandard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 200±248bar (2900±3600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes.CNG is used in traditional gasolineinternal combustion enginecars that have been converted intobi-fuel vehicles(gasoline/CNG).Natural gas vehiclesare increasingly used in the Asia-Pacificregion,Latin  America,Europe, and America due to rising gasoline prices.
[1]
In response to high fuel prices and environmentalconcerns, CNG is starting to be used also intuk-tuksandpickup trucks,transitandschool buses, andtrains. CNG¶s volumetricenergy densityis estimated to be 42% of LNGµs (because it is notliquefied), and 25% of diesel¶s.
[2]
 
 
Compressed natural gas vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than conventional gasolinepowered vehicles. Since it is a compressed gas, rather than a liquid like gasoline, CNG takes up more space for eachgasoline gallon equivalent(GGE). Therefore, the tanks used to store the CNG usually take up additional spacein the trunk of a car or bed of a pickup truck which runs on CNG. This problem is solved in factory-built CNG vehiclesthat install the tanks under the body of the vehicle, thanks to a more rational disposition of components, leaving thetrunk free (e.g.Fiat Multipla, NewFiat Panda,Volkswagen TouranEcofuel,Volkswagen CaddyEcofuel, Chevy Taxi (sold in countries such as Peru)). Another option is installation on roof (typical on buses), requiring, however, solutionof structural strength issues. CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles.
CNG Advantage
Due to the absence of any lead or benzene content in CNG, the lead fouling of spark plugs is eliminated.CNG-powered vehicleshave lower maintenance costs when compared with other fuel-powered vehicles. CNG fuelsystems are sealed, which prevents any spill or evaporation losses. Another practical advantage observed is theincreased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not contaminate and dilute the crankcase oil. CNG mixes easily andevenly in air being a gaseous fuel. CNG is less likely to auto-ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignitiontemperature (540 °C) and a narrow range (5%-15%) of flammability.
[6]
 CNG emits significantly less pollutants such ascarbon dioxide(CO
2
),hydrocarbons(UHC),carbon monoxide(CO),nitrogen oxides(NO
x
),sulfur oxides(SO
x
) andparticulate matter (PM), compared to petrol. For example, an engine running on petrol for 100 km emits 22,000 grams of CO
2
, while covering the same distance onCNG emits only 16,275 grams of CO
2
. [CNG is essentially methane, i.e. CH4 with a calorific value of 900 Kj/mol. Thisburns with Oxygen to produce 1 mol of CO2 and 2 mol of H2O. By comparison, petrol can be regarded as essentiallyBenzene or similar, C6H6 with a calorific value of about 3,300 Kj/mol and this burns to produce 6 mol of CO2 and3 mol of H2O. From this it can be seen that per mol of CO2 produced, CNG releases over 1.6 times as much energyas that released from petrol (or for the same amount of energy, CNG produces nearly 40% less CO2).] Thecorresponding figures are 78 and 25.8 grams respectively, for nitrogen oxides. Carbon monoxide emissions arereduced even further. Due to lower carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions, switching to CNG can helpmitigategreenhouse gas emissions.
[6]
The ability of CNG to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the entire fuellifecycle will depend on the source of the natural gas and the fuel it is replacing. Thelifecyclegreenhouse gasemissions for CNG compressed from California¶s pipeline natural gas is given a value of 67.70 grams of CO
2
-equivalentper megajoule(gCO2e/MJ) by theCalifornia Air Resources Board(ARB), approximately 28% lower than the average gasoline fuel in that market (95.86 gCO2e/MJ). CNG produced from landfill biogas was found by ARB tohave the lowest greenhouse gas emissions of any fuel analyzed, with a value of 11.26 gCO2e/MJ (over 88% lower than conventional gasoline) in thelow-carbon fuel standardthat went into effect on January 12, 2010.
[7
  ATaxicabinNew Delhi. A 1998 court order requires local buses and autos inDelhito run onCompressed Natural Gas Pakistan currently has the highest number of vehicles running on CNG in the world followed by Argentina, Brazil andIran. Pakistan also has the highest number of CNG stations in the world numbering more than 2600. Majority of private vehicles have converted to CNG because of cheaper price as compared to petrol. Only luxury cars and officialvehicles now run on petrol. Recently, new CNG Buses had been introduced byCDGKin Karachi. Almost all car manufacturers in Pakistan (except Honda) now produce company fitted CNG kit versions. Recent hikes in CNG
 
prices has downplayed the ambitious ventures of some of the stakeholders in this sector. It is expected that price of the CNG and Kits will come down as competition among manufacturers grows. LandiRenzo Pakistan is alsoexporting CNG kits to various countries including China, Brazil and Italy. Almost 2 million vehicles on the country¶sroads have dual fuel options with Suzuki having the highest in quantity.CNG has grown into one of the major fuel sources used in car engines in India andBangladeshas well. The use of CNG is mandated for the public transport system of India¶s capital New Delhi as well as for the city of  Ahmedabadinthe state of Gujarat. TheDelhi Transport Corporationoperates the world¶s largest fleet of CNG buses. Today manyrickshawsas well as personal vehicles in India and Bangladesh are being converted to CNG poweredtechnology, the cost of which is in the range of $800±$1000. In the Bangladesh capital of Dhaka not a single autorickshaw without CNG has been permitted since 2003.
[13]
 In India CNG costs are at Rs. Rs 31.47 per kg (US$0.68 ) per kg compared with Rs. 63.00 (US$ 1.721) per liter of petrol (prices as of Jan. 2011 in Mumbai, India). CNG is quite notable at a cost savings of 60% along with reducedemissions and its usability by environmentally friendlier cars.
 According to
International Association of Natural Gas Vehicles
,
as of December 2008
,
 Pakistan has the world¶s highest number of vehicles running on compressed Natural Gas (CNG).The number is
2 million
. Pakistan also has the World¶s highest numer of CNG refuellingstations. i.e.
2941
(updated as of July 29
,
2009). This growth has been phenomenal noting thatCNG as a fuel was made available in Pakistan
,
only in
1992
.
 
For many years
,
Argentina andBrazil used to be the world leaders in terms of number of vehicles using CNG. Pakistan overtook Brazil in 2006 and Argentina in 2008 to become the world¶s largest consumer of CNG in vehicles
 Why Pakistan has got so many vehicles running on CNG? I believe
,
main reason is because gasoline (Petrol) prices in Pakistan are among the highest in the region as wellas natural gas is found abundant and locally in Pakistan.The use of CNG in vehicles brings an added blessing that it is much less polluting thanregular gasoline (petrol). The emissions coming out of CNG vehicles consists of water vapors and carbon monoxide (CO). The CO content in CNG exhaust is also 90% lessthan CO found in gasoline (petrol) exhausts.In Pakistan
,
car companies are now offering vehicles which come factory-fitted withCNG kits. These vehicles sell for a premium of approx 30000 rupees (US$ 375) ascompared to gasoline (petrol) vehicles. With Pakistan going full ahead with making CNG as the primary fuel source fortransport
,
one concern is that Pakistan is depleting its Natural Gas reserves faster thanever before.
CNG in Pakistan: Toyota, Hyundai, Suzuki, Ki

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