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Published by Ajay Dogney

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Ajay Dogney on Jul 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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MC0075 ² Computer NetworksAssignment Set ² 11. Explain in what way computer networks is useful for the people with examples ?Ans:
Computer networking is useful to people in many ways. some of the following points arelisted and discussed here to tell my blog readers about the importance of the computer networksin common people·s day-to-day life. They are«.
ccess to remote information
erson-to-person communication
nteractive entertainment
ccess to remote information will come in many forms. One area in which it is alreadyhappening is access to financial institutions. We can pay our utility bills online, can manage ourbank accounts, handle our investments electronically, transfer funds online, buying and sellingshares online and booking reservations online. Newspapers are going online and can bepersonalized as per our requirement. We can tell the newspaper that we want everything aboutcorrupt politicians, big fires, scandals involving celebrities, and epidemics, but no foot ball,Thank you. The content of the news will be delivered to our desk as per our interests at nightwhile we sleep every day, the news paper will be downloaded to our computer disk or can beprinted on our laser printer. The next step beyond news papers, magazines and scientific journals is the online digital library. We are getting all the news papers content, magazines andscientific journals are available digitally online. Depending on the cost, size and weight of booksized notebook computers, printed books may become obsolete.
nother application that falls inthis category is access to information systems like the current world wide web, which containsinformation about the arts, business, cooking, government, health, history, hobbies, recreation,science, sports, travel, and too many other topics.The second broad category of network use will be person-to-person interactions. Electronic mailor email is widely used by millions of people and it contains also audio and video as well astext. Real time email will allow remote users to communicate with no delay, possible seeing andhearing each other as well. This technology makes it possible to have virtual meetings, calledvideo conference, among far-flung people.Our third category is entertainment, which is, a huge and growing industry, is video ondemand. It is possible to select any movie or television program ever made, in any country, andhave it displayed on our screen instantly. New films became interactive, where the user isoccasionally prompted for the story direction with alternative scenarios provided for all cases.Live television also became interactive, with the audience participating in quiz shows, choosingamong contestants, and so on.
. Describe the ISO-OSI reference model and discuss the importance of every layer ?
ns: The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework forimplementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting atthe application layer in one station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to thenext station and back up the hierarchy.
The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework forimplementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting atthe application layer in one station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to thenext station and back up the hierarchy.
Application (Layer 7) :
This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communicationpartners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy areconsidered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer isapplication-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and othernetwork software services. Telnet and FT
are applications that exist entirely in the applicationlevel. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.
 Presentation (Layer 6) :
This layer provides independence from differences in datarepresentation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and viceversa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layercan accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedomfrom compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.
 Session (Layer 5) :
This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections betweenapplications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges,and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connectioncoordination.
 Transport (Layer 4) :
This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, orhosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures completedata transfer.
 Network (Layer 3) :
This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logicalpaths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing andforwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling,congestion control and packet sequencing.
 Data Link (Layer
) :
t this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishestransmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer,flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: TheMedia
ccess Control (M
C) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The M
C sublayer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission totransmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.
 Physical (Layer 1) :
This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal --through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means ofsending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects.Fast Ethernet, RS232, and
TM are protocols with physical layer components.
3. Explain the following with respect to Data Communications:A) Fourier analysis B) Band limited signals C) Maximum data rate of a channelA) Fourier analysisAns:
In 19th century, the French mathematician Fourier proved that any periodic function oftime g(t) with period T can be constructed by summing a number of cosines and sines.
 Where f=1/T is the fundamental frequency, and are the sine and cosine amplitudes of thenth harmonics. Such decomposition is called a Fourier series.
B) Band limited signals
Consider the signal given in figure below. Figure shows the signal that is the
SCIIrepresentation of the character ¶b· which consists of the bit pattern ¶01100010· along with itsharmonics
ny transmission facility cannot pass all the harmonics and hence few of the harmonics arediminished and distorted. The bandwidth is restricted to low frequencies consisting of 1, 2, 4,and 8 harmonics and then transmitted. Figures show the spectra and reconstructed functionsfor these band-limited signals.Limiting the bandwidth limits the data rate even for perfect channels. However complexcoding schemes that use several voltage levels do exist and can achieve higher data rates.
C) Maximum data rate of a channel
In 1924, H. Nyquist realized the existence of the fundamental limit and derived the equationexpressing the maximum data for a finite bandwidth noiseless channel. In 1948, ClaudeShannon carried Nyquist work further and extended it to the case of a channel subject torandom noise.In communications, it is not really the amount of noise that concerns us, but rather the amountof noise compared to the level of the desired signal. That is, it is the ratio of signal to noisepower that is important, rather than the noise power alone. This Signal¬-to-Noise Ratio(SNR), usually expressed in decibel (dB), is one of the most important specifications of anycommunication system. The decibel is a logarithmic unit used for comparisons of power levelsor voltage levels. In order to understand the implication of dB, it is important to know that asound level of zero dB corresponds to the threshold of hearing, which is the smallest soundthat can be heard.
normal speech conversation would measure about 60 dB.If an arbitrary signal is passed through the Low pass filter of bandwidth H, the filtered signalcan be completely reconstructed by making only 2H samples per second. Sampling the linefaster than 2H per second is pointless. If the signal consists of V discrete levels, then Nyquisttheorem states that, for a noiseless channelMaximum data rate = 2H.log2 (V) bits per second. For a noisy channel with bandwidth is againH, knowing signal to noise ratio S/N, the

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