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microprocessor _Lecture15

microprocessor _Lecture15

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microprocessor lecture notes 15
microprocessor lecture notes 15

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Published by: CS420 on Sep 16, 2008
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12/18/2012

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 1
EEE 410 – Microprocessors I
Spring 04/05 – Lecture Notes # 15Outline of the Lecture
 
Basic Computer ArchitectureB
ASIC
C
OMPUTER 
A
RCHITECTURE
 
CPU
:
Central Processing Unit/Microprocessor; the
 Brain
and the
 Heart 
of theComputer. Executes (processes) the information stored in memory.
Memory
:
Memory is the primary storage for the programs and data (RAM, ROM)
I/O
:
- Drives the disks (secondary storage units):Hard Disk, Floppy Disks etc.-
 
Monitor (CRT – 
Cathode Ray Tube
)-
 
Keyboard-
 
Printer -
 
Mouse-
 
Fax, Modem
Buses
:
A bus is defined to be a bundle of wires. There are 3 types of buses-
 
Address Bus (Unidirectional)
-
 
Data Bus (Bidirectional)
 
-
 
Control Bus (Unidirectional)
CPU
Microprocessor 80x86
Memory
(RAM,ROM)
I/O Device
Input/OutputKeboard
I/O Device
Input/OutputMonitor 
Data BusAddress BusControl Bus
 
 2
 
 
Time Sequencing during an instruction execution
 
CPU
Control UnitRegistersALU
ContolUnit
.Memory..
Control Bus Address Bus Data Bus
Fetch an instructionDecodeExecuteGenerateREAD / WRITEduring executionUpgrade Programcounter READREADor WRITE
CPUMemory
 
 3
 
Pin descriptions of 8086 Microprocessor
Data Bus:
- In 8086 microprocessor Pins AD0 – AD15 are used for the data bus.-
 
However the same pins are also used for Address bus as well.-
 
The ALE (Address Latch Enable –pin 25) signals whether the information on pins AD0 – AD15 is used address or data.-
 
When the data is sent out or in, the case when ALE is low indicates that AD0-AD15 will beused as data bus.-
 
When the address data is sent out, the ALE is high indicating that AD0-AD15 will be usedas address bus-
 
This process of separating address and data from pins AD0-AD15 is called demultiplexing.
Address Bus:
- The 8086 CPU is has 20-bit address bus, where the AD0-AD15 and A16-A20 are used as theaddress bus. To demultiplex the address signals from the address/data pins (AD0-AD15) alatch must be used to grab the addresses.- In 8086 microprocessor the address bus is 20-bit wide, however only 16-bit is shared withdata bus (AD0-AD15) through demultiplexing.-
 
The most widely used latch for demultiplexing is 74LS373 IC (see Figure 9-3 below: Notethat for 8088 the address bus is 20 bit and data bus is 8-bit. So only 8-bit is latched).
Control Bus : is used to indicate
-
 
When a valid address is on the address bus-
 
In which direction data are to be transferred over the data bus (in/out)-
 
When external devices can read/write data on the data bus.-
 
When valid read/write data are on the data bus.-
 
Etc.(a) 8086 Microprocessor (b) 8088 Microprocessor 

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