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Published by Khairul Azri

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Published by: Khairul Azri on Jul 21, 2011
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PARASITOLOGY 20101: (m/s 207)a)
Tunga Penetrans (chigoe flea, jigger, sand flea)b)
Causative agentc)
Sores usually become secondary infected and may lead to extensive ulceration, abscessformation or even gangrenee)
By wearing shoes because human infestation is usually acquired from contact with sand which isa favourite habitat for these flea.2:a)
Flies in which their larvae can complete their development without a host. Eg: Sarcophaga,Lucilia, Calliphora (m/s 228)b)
Organism undergoes developmental or morphological changes only without multiplication inthe arthropod Eg: development of microfilaria within Culex Mosquito (m/s 188)c)
Newly hatched larvae are totally different morphologically from the adult (m/s 190)d)
Ricketssia in ticks3:a)
Characteristics : (m/s 207)1.
It becomes easily blocked2.
Feeds on both infected rodents and human3.
Abundant near human habitationsb)
To relax its hold and will allow it to be easily removed by traction (m/s 197)c)
To open the tunnel, and also the complete life cycle of Scabies is about 5 days (m/s 200)d)
-Because of their short flight range and their tendency to stay close to the ground-Easily controlled by residual insecticides (m/s 220)
Eggs of anopheles and Culex mosquito (m/s 214)Eggs Anopheles Eggs CulexLaid singly Laid in batchesDark Brown 50 to 100Air floats on either side Called egg raftsb)
Ticks and Mites (m/s 195)Ticks MitesSize Large SmallCuticle Thick and leathery Thin and membranousBody hairs Absent PresentHypostome Teeth exposed and large Unarmed, hidden small
Scabies (m/s 199)b)
Sarcoptes Scabieic)
Warmth is enhanced at night, thus initiates an acidic secretiond)
Treatment: (m/s 200)a.
Before treatment the infested part should be thoroughly scrubbed all over by soap andlifa to open the tunnels for five successive daysb.
These sites are then rubbed with the acaricidal lotion such as Eurax (crotamiton) whichis an efficient acaricide and also inhibits the growth of bacteriac.
The patients clothes and bed sheets should be sterilized by boiling during treatmente)
Prevention : (m/s 200)a.
Personal hygiene by regular bathingb.
Avoid contact with patients2:a.
Characteristics: (m/s 212)1.
They must feed frequently on human blood (anthropophilic)2.
They must susceptible to gametocytes so that, development of the parasite can occur init3.
They must live long enough for the Plasmodium parasite to complete its development4.
Plasmodia parasites must be present in adequate numbers to maintain transmissionb.
To prevent spreadc.
Easily removed by tractiond.
To prove the time of death which can be determined by the entomologist. The longer the larvaethe older it is (m/s 200)3:a.
When the arthropods transport the various pathogens in or on their body and drop themunchanged on human food, drinks or tissue Eg: Role of the house fly in the transmission of enteric pathogens, cysts of protozoa and eggs of helminthes (m/s 187)b.
The condition when the fly larvae are obligatory tissue parasites and can only develop on or inliving tissue Eg: Dermatobia, Cordylobia Anthropophaga, Wohlfahrtia (m/s 228)c.
Blood-feeding arthropod that introduces its mouthparts directly into a blood vessel tofeed.(wiki)d.
Parasite which feed frequently on human blood Eg: Female Anopheles mosquito (m/s 212)

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