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MATHEMATICS194
With the Calculus as a key, Mathematics can be successfully applied  to the explanation of the course of Nature.”

6.1Introduction
In Chapter 5, we have learnt how to find derivative of composite functions, inversetrigonometric functions, implicit functions, exponential functions and logarithmic functions.In this chapter, we will study applications of the derivative in various disciplines, e.g., inengineering, science, social science, and many other fields. For instance, we will learnhow the derivative can be used (i) to determine rate of change of quantities, (ii) to findthe equations of tangent and normal to a curve at a point, (iii) to find turning points onthe graph of a function which in turn will help us to locate points at which largest orsmallest value (locally) of a function occurs. We will also use derivative to find intervalson which a function is increasing or decreasing. Finally, we use the derivative to findapproximate value of certain quantities.
6.2Rate of Change of Quantities
Recall that by the derivative
dsdt
, we mean the rate of change of distance
s
withrespect to the time
. In a similar fashion, whenever one quantity
y
varies with anotherquantity
x
, satisfying some rule()
yfx
=
, then
dydx
(or
f
(
x
)) represents the rate of change of
y
with respect to
x
and
0
xx
dydx
=
(or
f
(
x
0
)) represents the rate of changeof
y
with respect to
x
at
0
xx
=
.Further, if two variables
x
and
y
are varying with respect to another variable
, i.e.,if ()
xf
=
and()
yg
=
, then by Chain Rule
dydx
=
dydxdtd
, if
0
dxdt
Chapter
6
APPLICATION OFDERIVATIVES

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES195
Thus, the rate of change of
y
with respect to
x
can be calculated using the rate of change of
y
and that of
x
both with respect to
.Let us consider some examples.
Example 1
Find the rate of change of the area of a circle per second with respect toits radius
when
= 5 cm.
Solution
The area A of a circle with radius
is given by A =
π
2
. Therefore, the rateof change of the area A with respect to its radius
is given by
2
A()2
drdrd
= π = π
.When
= 5 cm,
A10
dr
= π
. Thus, the area of the circle is changing at the rate of 10
π
cm
2
/s.
Example 2
The volume of a cube is increasing at a rate of 9 cubic centimetres persecond. How fast is the surface area increasing when the length of an edge is 10centimetres ?
Solution
Let
x
be the length of a side, V be the volume and S be the surface area of the cube. Then, V =
x
3
and S = 6
x
2
, where
x
is a function of time
.Now
V
dt
=9cm
3
/s (Given)Therefore9 =
33
V()()
ddddx xxdtdtdxd
= =
(By Chain Rule)=
2
3
dx xdt
or
dxdt
=
2
3
x
... (1)Now
dSdt
=
22
(6)(6)
dddx xxdtdxd
=
(By Chain Rule)=
2
33612
x x x
=
(Using (1))Hence, when
x
=10 cm,
2
3.6cm/s
dSdt
=

MATHEMATICS196
Example 3
A stone is dropped into a quiet lake and waves move in circles at a speedof 4cm per second. At the instant, when the radius of the circular wave is 10 cm, howfast is the enclosed area increasing?
Solution
The area A of a circle with radius
is given by A =
π
2
. Therefore, the rateof change of area A with respect to time
isA
dt
=
22
()()
dddrdtdrd
π = π
= 2
π

dr dt
(By Chain Rule)It is given that
dr dt
=4cm/sTherefore, when
= 10 cm,
A
dt
=2
π
(10) (4) = 80
π
Thus, the enclosed area is increasing at the rate of 80
π
cm
2
/s, when
= 10 cm.
Note
dydx
is positive if
y
increases as
x
increases and is negative if
y
decreasesas
x
increases.
Example 4
The length
x
of a rectangle is decreasing at the rate of 3 cm/minute andthe width
y
is increasing at the rate of 2cm/minute. When
x
=10cm and
y
= 6cm, findthe rates of change of (a) the perimeter and (b) the area of the rectangle.
Solution
Since the length
x
is decreasing and the width
y
is increasing with respect totime, we have3cm/min
dxdt
= −
and2cm/min
dydt
=
(a)The perimeter P of a rectangle is given byP =2(
x
+
y
)ThereforeP
dt
=22(32)2cm/min
dxdydtd
+ = + =
(b)The area A of the rectangle is given byA =
x
.
y
ThereforeA
dt
=
dxdy yxdtd
+
=3(6) + 10(2)(as
x
= 10 cm and
y
= 6 cm)=2 cm
2
/min
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